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Glossary

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ACF
African Conservation Foundation

AFLEG
Africa Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade. A declaration of intent and request for financial support by 29 African governments, 8 European countries, the EC, the USA and Canada. It refers expressly to the problem of forest destruction and the illegal bushmeat trade

AMP
Alliance pour la Majorité Présidentielle. Party alliance that supports President Kabila, Democratic Republic of the Congo

APCLS
Armée patriotique pour un Congo libre et souverain

Ape Alliance
International coalition of organisations and individuals working for the conservation and welfare of apes

APFT
Avenir des Peuples des Forêts Tropicales.
(Future of tropical forest peoples)

APPG
The All Party Parliamentary Group on the Great Lakes Region & Genocide Prevention. A group for the prevention of genocide of the UK Parliament, House of Commons Select Committee on International Development

ARCOS
Albertine Rift Conservation Society

AWF
African Wildlife Foundation. Conservation organization based in the USA

AZA
The American Zoo and Aquarium Association

B&RD
Berggorilla & Regenwald Direkthilfe.e.V

Bahunde
Bantu people in eastern Congo, west of Goma

Banyamulenge
Tutsi who had fled from Rwanda and settled in Kivu, especially in the Masisi region, and were driven out of their homes by the Zairean government

Bashi
Bantu people in eastern Congo to the southwest of Lake Kivu

BCTF
Bushmeat Crisis Task Force. AZA bushmeat project

BMCT
Bwindi Mgahinga Conservation Trust (originally MBIFCT)

BMZ
Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development)

CADAK
Coordination des Activités de Développement Autour de Kyavirimu. Congolese NGO for the development of the area around Mt. Kyavirimu (or Tshiaberimu), based in Butembo

CARE
Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere. American aid organization which is privately maintained; subsidiary organizations in many countries

CARPE
Central African Regional Program in the Environment. A long-term initiative to address deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin forests (supported by many organizations, e.g. USAID, WCS, AWF, CI, WWF)

CAWT
Coalition Against Wildlife Trafficking. Coalition of organisations that fight illegal trade with wildlife

CBD
Convention on Biological Diversity

CBFP
Congo Basin Forest Partnership. Program introduced by the USA and South Africa during the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg

CBSG
Conservation Breeding Specialist Group

CEPF
Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund. A joint initiative of CI, GEF and others to advance the conservation of biodiversity hotspots

CGIAR
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. Global partnership that brings together scientific organisations with funders of research on sustainable development

CI
Conservation International. American conservation organization

CIA
Central Intelligence Agency

CIB
Congolaise Industrielle de Bois (Congolese Timber Industry). Timber company in the Congo Republic

CIFOR
Center for International Forestry Research. A CGIAR Consortium Research Center

CIRMF
Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville (International Medical Research Center at Franceville). Research center in Gabon

CITES
Convention for the International Trade in Endangered Species. Prevents or regulates international trade in endangered plants and animals as well as products made from them

CMS
Convention on Migratory Species. The CMS Secretariat is provided by UNEP and is based in Bonn, Germany.

CNDP
Congrès National pour la Défense du Peuple. Political movement of Laurent Nkunda

CoCoCongo
Coalition pour la Conservation au Congo. A support platform for the conservation of threatened areas, including the ICCN and its partners

CoCoSi
Comité de Coordination du Site. A structure for planning and coodination of a conservation site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, under ICCN authority

CoFCCA
Congo Basin Forests and Climate Change Adaptation. An initiative from CIFOR

COMIFAC
Commission des Forêts d'Afrique Centrale. Intergovernmental organisation in Central Africa that works for the conservation and the sustainable management of forest ecosystems

CRES
Center for the Reproduction of Endangered Species. Zoological Society of San Diego's research center

CRSN
Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles (Center for Scientific Research). Research center in Lwiro in eastern Congo

DFGF
Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund. Organization founded by Dian Fossey. Since its foundation, it has supported the Karisoke Research Centre in Rwanda, the rangers who patrol the area and the monitoring of the gorilla groups habituated for research. Today, DFGF also is working in Congo. DFGF International; DFGF UK/Europe
DFGF-E recently changed its name to Gorilla Organization; see also: Dian Fossey Conservation Programme

Dian Fossey Conservation Programme: Local programs of the Gorilla Organization

DTC
Development Through Conservation. CARE project in Uganda concerned with the gorilla conservation areas

EAZA
European Association of Zoos and Aquaria

ECOFAC
Conservation et utilisation rationelle des Ecosystèmes Forestiers en Afrique Centrale (Conservation and Rational Utilisation of Forest Ecosystems in Central Africa). An EU program that supports seven projects in seven African countries (finished)

EIA
Environmental Investigation Agency 

FAO
Food and Agriculture Organization. UN organization for food, agriculture, forestry and fishery. Based in Rome, Italy

FAR
Forces Armées Rwandaises. Army of the former Rwandan government (under Habyarimana)

FARDC
Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo. National army of the all-party government under Joseph Kabila

FAZ
Forces Armées Zairoises. Zairean army (under Mobutu)

FDC
Forces de Défense du Congo. Milicia in eastern DRC that fight the FDLR since 2010

FDLR
Forces democratiques de liberation du Rwanda (Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda). Rwandan rebel movement based in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

FFI
Fauna and Flora International (originally: FFPS). British conservation organization

FLC
Front de libération du Congo. Merger of MLC and RCD-ML

FLEGT
Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade.

FOCA
Fo
rce Combattante Amachunguzi. Founded by Rwandan Hutu militia that came to Congo in 1994 and 1998

FSC
Forest Stewardship Council. Grants certifications for sustainable logging practices

FUT
Freundeskreis für Ugandas Tierwelt (Friends of Ugandan Wildlife). German NGO; supports conservation projects in Uganda, especially in the national parks

FZS
Frankfurt Zoological Society. German conservation organization; based in Frankfurt Zoo

G4G
Gearing up 4 Gorillas. British charity.

GAP
Great Ape Project. Its aim is to include the non-human great apes within the community of equals by granting them the basic moral and legal protection that only human beings currently enjoy.

GAT
Great Ape Trust of Iowa. Research center in Des Moines concerned with great ape studies that also supports great ape conservation

GEF
Global Environment Facility. World Bank program for the environment

GIZ
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (German Society for International Co-operation). Developmental aid organization of the German government

The Gorilla Organization
new name of DFGF-E

GrASP
Great Ape Survival Partnership. UNEP program for the conservation of great apes

GTZ
Deutsche Gesellschaft für technische Zusammenarbeit (Society for Technical Co-operation). Since 2011: GIZ

GVTC
Greater Virunga Transboundary Collaboration

GVTS
Greater Virunga Transboundary Secretariat

HRW
Human Rights Watch. NGO that investigates and exposes human rights violations

HuGo
Human-Gorilla Conflict Resolution

ICCN
Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature (Congolese Institute for Nature Conservation). Formerly: IZCN. National park authority in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

IFAW
International Fund for Animal Welfare. Based in London

IGCP
International Gorilla Conservation Programme (French: PICG). Successor to the Mountain Gorilla Project which managed gorilla tourism in Rwanda. Funded by FFI, AWF, WWF; based in Nairobi

IMF
International Monetary Fund

Interahamwe
Hutu militia who prepared their villages for the genocide in Rwanda in 1994; they organized most village killings.

IPPL
International Primate Protection League. Organization for the protection of primates

IPS
International Primatological Society. Scientific society for primate research

IRIN
UN Integrated Regional Information Networks. Emergency relief information by OCHA

ITFC
Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation. Institute of Mbarara University, Uganda; manages research in the national parks of southwestern Uganda.

ITTO
International Tropical Timber Organization. Union of countries with timber export or import

IUCN
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (French: UICN). Union of more than 800 governmental and non-governmental organizations. Based in Gland, Switzerland

JGI
Jane Goodall Institute. Organization for the conservation of chimpanzees (meanwhile also other wildlife) founded by Jane Goodall. Based in the USA

KfW
Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (Credit Institute for restoration). Central German institution that provides loans; funded by the federal and land governments

LAGA
The Last Great Ape Organization. A young field-based organization designed to establish effective enforcement of local wildlife law in Cameroon.

M23
Rebel group in eastern DRC, around the gorilla sector of Virunga National Park

MAF
Morris Animal Foundation. American veterinary organization

Mai-Mai (or Mayi-Mayi)
Guerrilla warriors in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

MBIFCT
Mgahinga Bwindi Impenetrable Forest Conservation Trust. (now BMCT) GEF project in Uganda

MGCF
The Mountain Gorilla Conservation Fund. Initiated by Ruth Keesling

MGVP
Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project. A MAF project in Rwanda for gorilla health care in the Virunga Volcanoes and the Bwindi Impenetrable Park

MLC
Mouvement pour la Libération du Congo (Movement for the Liberation of Congo). Rebel movement in the Democratic Republic of the Congo led by Jean-Pierre Bemba

MONUC
UN mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, working until June 2010; successor: MONUSCO

MONUSCO
UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (successor of MONUC), working from July 2010 to June 2011

MSF
Médecins sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders). International organisation of doctors for emergency aid

NCF
Nigerian Conservation Foundation. Nigerian NGO dedicated to the promotion of nature conservation

NEPAD
New Partnership for Africa's Development

NGO
Non-governmental organization

OCHA
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

ORTPN
Office Rwandais du Tourisme et des Parcs Nationaux. Rwandan national park authority, now part of RDB

Oxfam
Oxford Committee for Famine Relief. British relief organization

PACEBCo
Programme d’Appui à la Conservation des Ecosystèmes du Bassin du Congo. A COMIFAC programme

PALU
Parti Lumumbiste Unifié - (allied Lumumbist party). Socialist opposition in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

PAPACO
Programme Aires Protégées d'Afrique du Centre et de l'Ouest. An IUCN programme

PAPECALF
Plan d'Action sous régional des Pays de l'Espace COMIFAC pour le renforcement des Législations nationales sur la Faune sauvage. Action plan of the COMIFAC countries to enforce the wildlife legislation 

PARECO
Patriotes sistants du Congo. Political wing of the Mai-Mai

PASA
Pan African Sanctuary Alliance. Cooperation of African ape orphanages

POPOF
Pole Pole Foundation. Conservation and development NGO in Bukavu

PPP
Peace Parks Project (French: Projet Parcs pour la Paix). An IUCN project that specializes in cross-border protected areas. One of the areas included in this project is at the border Democratic Republic of the Congo/Rwanda/Burundi.

PPRD
Parti du Peuple pour la Reconstruction et la Démocratie. Party of President Kabila, Democratic Republic of the Congo

RCD
Rassemblement Congolais pour la Democratie (Congolese Rally for Democracy). Rebel movement in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. RCD-Goma (controls the southeastern part of the country); RCD-ML (coltrols the northeastern part of the country).

RDB
Rwandan Development Board. Rwandan authority that indludes the national park department ORTPN.

REA
Rettet die Elefanten Afrikas (Save Africa's Elephants). German NGO based in Hamburg.

REDD
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation.

RI
Refugees International.

RPF
Rwandan Patriotic Front. Army of Paul Kagame (French: FPR).

Simba Rebels
Supporters of the former Congolese president Lumumba who was toppled by Mobutu.

SSC
Species Survival Commission. IUCN commission which develops and carries out programs for the conservation of biological diversity.

SSN
Species Survival Network. Union of numerous NGOs that work together to achieve a better implementation of the legislation for species conservation.

TRAFFIC
The wildlife trade monitoring network. A joint programme of WWF and IUCN.

UGADEC
Union des Associations de Conservation des Gorilles pour le Développement Communautaire à l'Est de la République Démocratique du Congo (Union of Associations for the Conservation of Gorillas and Community Development of the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo). Union of local NGOs that support the creation of 8 new reserves for gorillas to conserve natural resources and to promote development in the region.

UNDP
United Nations Developmental Programme.

UNEP
United Nations Environment Programme.

UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; World Heritage

UNHCR
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

UPDF
Uganda People's Defence Forces. Ugandan national army.

USAID
United States Agency for International Development. Developmental aid organization of the USA Government.

US FWS
US Fish and Wildlife Service. American governmental organization.

UWA
Uganda Wildlife Authority. Ugandan authority for wildlife conservation.

WCF
Wild Chimpanzee Foundation. Based in Leipzig, Germany.

WCS
Wildlife Conservation Society (originally: WCI). American conservation organization; based in New York. WCS program in the Republic of Congo

WCU
Wildlife Clubs of Uganda. Ugandan NGO.

WFP
World Food Programme (French: PAM). UN relief program.

WHO
World Health Organization (French: OMS). Based in Geneva, Switzerland.

World Bank
Special UN organization which gives loans to projects in developing countries. IBRD: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; IDA: International Development Association.

WRI
World Resources Institute.

WSPA
World Society for the Protection of Animals. Animal protection network of more than 300 member societies in over 70 countries

WWF
World Wide Fund for Nature. International conservation organization. Headquarters of WWF International: Gland, Switzerland. Numerous national organizations; WWF USA: World Wildlife Foundation

ZGAP
Zoologische Gesellschaft für Arten- und Populationsschutz. (Zoological Society for Species and Population Conservation)

ZGF
Zoologische Gesellschaft Frankfurt von 1858 (Zoological Society of Frankfurt). Also: FZS - Frankfurt Zoological Society. German conservation organization; based in Frankfurt Zoo

ZSL
Zoological Society of London. Conservation organization; based in London Zoo

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Claude Sikubwabo Kiyengo with a sign that marked the boundary of the Sarambwe Reserve (© Claude Sikubwabo Kiyengo)