ExtrasLiteratur

Literatur

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Gorillas

  • Bücher in englischer Sprache (Auswahl)

    Arcus Foundation (2014) Extractive industries and ape conservation. State of the Apes. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Arcus Foundation (2015) State of the Apes - Industrial Agriculture and Ape Conservation. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Beck, B. B. et al. (Hrsg.) (2001) Great Apes & Humans. Washington, D. C. (Smithsonian Institution Press).

    Bourne, G. H. & Cohen, M. (1975) The gentle giants. New York (Putnam's Sons).

    Caldecott, J. & Miles, L. (Hrsg.) (2005) World Atlas of Great Apes. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London (University of California Press).

    Dixson, A. F. (1981) The natural history of the gorilla. New York (Columbia University Press).

    Eckhart, G. & Lanjouw, A. (2008) Mountain Gorillas: biology, conservation, and coexistence. Baltimore (The Johns Hopkins University Press).

    Fossey, D. (1983) Gorillas in the mist. London (Hodder and Stoughton).

    Galdikas, B. M. F. et al. (Hrsg.) (2001) All apes great and small. Vol. 1: African apes. New York (Kluwer Acad./Plenum).

    Goodall, A. (1979) The wandering gorillas. London (Collins).

    Groves, C. P. (1970) Gorillas. New York (Arco).

    Harcourt, A. H. & Stewart, K. J. (2007) Gorilla society: conflict, compromise, and cooperation between the sexes. Chicago, London (University of Chicago Press).

    Harvey, M. & Farris-Toussaint, L. (2008) Gorillas. The Gentle Giants. Evans Mitchell Books.

    Jones, C. & Sabater Pi, J. (1971) Comparative ecology of Gorilla gorilla (Savage and Wyman) and Pan troglodytes (Blumenbach) in Rio Muni, West Africa). Basel (Karger).

    Maple, T. & Hoff, M. P. (1982) Gorilla behavior. New York (Van Nostrand Reinhold).

    Parker, S. T. (Hrsg.) (1999) The mentalities of gorillas and orangutans. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Prince-Hughes, D. (2001) Gorillas among us. A primate ethnographer's book of days. Tucson (University of Arizona Press).

    Robbins, M. M. & Boesch, C. (eds.) (2011) Among African Apes. Stories and photos from the field. Berkeley (University of California Press).

    Robbins, M. M. et al. (Hrsg.) (2001) Mountain Gorillas. Three Decades of Research at Karisoke. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Russon, A. & Wallis, J. (eds.; 2014) Primate Tourism: A Tool for Conservation? Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Schaller, G. B. (1963) The mountain gorilla. Chicago (Chicago University Press).

    Taylor, A. B. & Goldsmith, M. L. (Hrsg.) (2003) Gorilla biology. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Tuttle, R. H. (1986) Apes of the world. Noyes, Park Ridge.

    Yamagiwa, J. & Karczmarski, L. (eds.) (2014) Primates and Cetaceans: Field Research and Conservation of Complex Mammalian Societies (Primatology Monographs). Springer.

  • Bücher in deutscher Sprache

    Baumgärtel, W. (1960) König in Gorillaland. Stuttgart (Franckh)

    Baumgärtel, W. (1977) Unter Gorillas. Berlin (Universitas)

    Bourne, G. H. & Cohen, M. (1977) Die sanften Riesen. München (Kindler)

    Bürgel, P. H. & Hartwig, M. (1989) Bei den Berggorillas. Luzern (Kinderbuchverlag)

    Fossey, D. (1989) Gorillas im Nebel. München (Kindler)

    Godwin, S. (1994) Gorillas. München (Karl Müller)

    Haikal, M. (2013) Master Pongo. Ein Gorilla erobert Europa. Berlin (Transit)

    Haikal, M. (2016) Unheimliche Nähe. Menschenaffen als europäische Sensation. Leipzig (Passage-Verlag)

    Hess, J. (1989) Familie 5. Basel (Birkhäuser)

    Hess, J. (1996) Menschenaffen Mutter und Kind. Basel (Friedrich Reinhardt Verlag)

    Hess, J. (2011) Berggorillas - Eine Hommage. Basel (Echtzeit Verlag)

    Ingensiep, H. W. (2013) Der kultivierte Affe. Philosophie, Geschichte und Gegenwart. Stuttgart (Hirzel)

    Klotz, A. & Klotz, A. (2010) Berggorillas. Zu Besuch bei unseren Verwandten (Kinderbuch). Rheinbach (Tipp 4)

    Meder, A. (1993) Gorillas - Ökologie und Verhalten. Berlin, Heidelberg (Springer)

    Robbins, M. & Boesch, C. (Hrsg.) (2013) Menschenaffen. Begegnung mit unseren nächsten Verwandten. Stuttgart (Hirzel)

    Schaller, G. (1965) Unsere nächsten Verwandten. Bern (Scherz)

    Schuler, C. (2013) Leben und Überleben im Kongo. Gorillaschutz und Familienleben im Krieg. Altdorf (BfT Verlag).

    Sommer, V. & Ammann, K. (1998) Die großen Menschenaffen. München (BLV)

  • Anatomie

    Abitbol, M. M. (1991) Ontogeny and evolution of pelvic diameters in anthropoid primates and in Australopithecus afarensis (AL 288-1). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 85, 135-148.

    Barks, S. K. et al. (2015) Brain Organization of Gorillas Reflects Species Differences in Ecology. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 156, 252-262.

    Breuer, T. et al. (2012) Phenotypic correlates of male reproductive success in western gorillas. Journal of Human Evolution 62, 466-472.

    Caillaud, D. et al. (2008) Influence of male morphology on male mating status and behavior during interunit encounters in western lowland gorillas. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 135, 379-388.

    Dean, M. C. et al. (1992) The natural history of tooth wear, continuous eruption and periodontal disease in wild shot great apes. J. hum. Evol. 22, 23-39.

    Ellis, R. A. & Montagna, W. (1962) The skin of the primates. VI. The skin of the gorilla. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 20, 79-94.

    Fischer, R. B. et al. (1982) Evidence of laterality in the lowland gorilla. Perceptual and Motor Skills 54, 1093-1094.

    Gould, K. G. & Martin, D. E. (1981) The female ape genital tract and its secretions. S. 105-125 in: Graham, D. (Hrsg.) Reproductive biology of the great apes: comparative and biomedical perspectives. New York (Academic Press).

    Gregory, W. K. (Hrsg.) (1950) The anatomy of the gorilla. New York (Columbia University Press).

    Hall-Craggs, E. C. B. (1962) The testis of Gorilla gorilla beringei. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 139, 511-514.

    Hill, W. C. O. & Matthews, L. H. (1949) The male external genitalia of the gorilla, with remarks on the os penis of other Hominoidea. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 119, 363-378.

    Ishida, H. et al. (1975) Patterns of bipedal walking in anthropoid primates. Proceedings of the Symposia of the 5th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Tokyo, 287-302.

    Jabbour, R. S. & Pearman, T. L. (2016) Geographic variation in gorilla limb bones. Journal of Human Evolution 95, 68-79.

    L'Engle Williams, F. & Roban, R. (2007) Ontogeny and phylogeny of the pelvis in Gorilla, Pongo, Pan, Australopithecus and Homo. Folia primatologica 78, 99-117.

    Leutenegger, E. (1970) Beziehungen zwischen der Neugeborenengröße und dem Sexualdimorphismus am Becken bei simischen Primaten. Folia Primatologica 12, 224-235.

    Leutenegger, E. & Kelly, J. T. (1977) Relationship of sexual dimorphism in canine size and body size to social, behavioral and ecological correlates in anthropoid primates. Primates 18, 117-136.

    Leigh, S. L., Relethford, J. H., Park, P. B. & Konigsberg, L. W. (2003) Morphological differentiation in Gorilla subspecies. S. 104-131 in: Taylor, A. B. & Goldsmith, M. L. (Hrsg.) Gorilla biology. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Nadler, R. D. (1975) Cyclity in tumescence of the perineal labia of female lowland gorillas. Anatomical Record 181, 791-797.

    Noback, C. R. (1939) The changes in the vaginal smears and associated cyclic phenomena in the lowland gorilla. Anatomical Record 73, 209-225.

    O'Higgins, P. et al. (1990) Patterns of cranial sexual dimorphism in certain groups of extant hominoids. Journal of Zoology 222, 399-420.

    Rothschild, B. M. & Rühli, F. J. (2005) Comparison of arthritis characteristics in lowland Gorilla gorilla and mountain Gorilla beringei. American Journal of Primatology 66, 205-218.

    Sakka, M. (1986) Sexual dimorphism in great apes: The skull of the gorilla. Symp. of the Society for the Study of Human Biology 24, 79-103.

    Schultz, A. H. (1950) Morphological observations on gorillas. S. 227-254 in: Gregory, W. K. (Hrsg.) The anatomy of the gorilla. New Yoork (Columbia Univ. Press).

    Steiner, P. E. (1954) Anatomical observations on a Gorilla gorilla. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 12, 145-180.

    Stumpf, R. M. et al. (2003) Patterns of diversity in gorilla cranial morphology. S. 35-61 in: Taylor, A. B. & Goldsmith, M. L. (Hrsg.) Gorilla biology. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Tuttle, R. H. & Watts, D. P. (1985) The positional behavior and adaptive complexes of Pan gorilla. S. 261-288 in: Kondo, S. et al. (Hrsg.) Primate locomotor behavior, morphophysiology, and bipedalism. Tokyo (Tokyo University Press).

  • Bestandsaufnahmen, Bedrohung, Schutz

    Ammann, K. (2001) Bushmeat hunting and the great apes. S. 71-85 in: Beck, B. B. et al. (Hrsg.) Great Apes & Humans. Washington, D. C. (Smithsonian Institution Press).

    Archabald, K. & Naughton-Treves, L. (2001) Tourism revenue-sharing around national parks in western Uganda: early efforts to identify and reward local communities. Environmental Conservation 28, 135-149.

    Arcus Foundation (2014) Extractive industries and ape conservation. State of the Apes. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Arcus Foundation (2015) State of the Apes - Industrial Agriculture and Ape Conservation. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Arnhem, E. et al. (2008) Selective logging, habitat quality and home range use by sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees: a case study from an active logging concession in southeast Cameroon. Folia primatologica 79, 1-14.

    Aveling, C. & Aveling, R. (1981) Mountain gorilla project: Progress report 4. Oryx 16, 135-137.

    Aveling, C. & Aveling, R. (1989) Gorilla conservation in Zaire. Oryx 23, 64-70.

    Aveling, C. & Harcourt, A. H. (1984) A census of the Virunga gorillas. Oryx 18, 8-13.

    Aveling, R. & Aveling, C. (1987) Report from the Zaire gorilla conservation project. Primate Conservation 8, 162-164.

    Baumgärtel, W. (1959) The last British gorillas. Geographical Magazine, London, 32, 32-41.

    Bergl, R. A. et al. (2012) Remote sensing analysis reveals habitat, dispersal corridors and expanded distribution for the Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla Gorilla gorilla diehli. Oryx 46, 278-289.

    Bermejo, M. (1999) Status and conservation of primates in Odzala National Park, Republic of the Congo. Oryx 33, 323-331.

    Blake, S. et al. (1995) Swamp gorillas in northern Congo. Afr. J. Ecol. 33, 285-290.

    Blom, A. et al. (2001) A survey of the apes in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic. African Journal of Ecology 39, 98-105.

    Blom, A. et al. (2004) Human impact on wildlife populations within a protected Central African forest. African Journal of Ecology 42, 8-22.

    Blom, A. et al. (2005) Factors influencing the distribution of large mammals within a protected central African forest. Oryx 39, 381-388.

    Bowen-Jones, E. & Pendry, S. (1999) The threat to primates and other mammals from the bushmeat trade in Africa, and how this threat could be diminished. Oryx 33, 233-246.

    Bützler, W. (1980) Présence et répartition des gorilles au Cameroun. Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen 28, 69-79.

    Butsic, V. et al. (2015) Conservation and conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo: The impacts of warfare, mining, and protected areas on deforestation. Biological Conservation 191, 266-273.

    Butynski, T. (1991) Status, distribution and conservation of the mountain gorilla in the gorilla game reserve, Uganda. Gorilla Conservation News 5, 26-27.

    Butynski, T. (2001) Africa's great apes. S. 3-56 in: Beck, B. B., et al. (Hrsg.) Great Apes & Humans. Washington, D. C. (Smithsonian Institution Press).

    Caldecott, J. & Miles, L. (Hrsg.) (2005) World Atlas of Great Apes. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London (University of California Press).

    Carroll, R. W. (1986) Status of the lowland gorilla and other wildlife in the Dzanga-Sangha region of southwestern Central African Republic. Primate Conservation 7, 38-41.

    Carroll, R. W. (1988) Relative density, range extension, and conservation potential of the lowland gorilla in the Dzanga-Sangha region of southwestern Central African Republic. Mammalia 52, 311-323.

    Cousins, D. (1978) Man's exploitation of the gorilla. Biological Conservation 13, 287-297.

    Cousins, D. (1983) Man's affiliation with the anthropoid apes in Africa. Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia 77, 19-40.

    Dowsett-Lemaire, F. & Dowsett, R. J. (2001) A new population of gorillas Gorilla gorilla and other endangered primates in western Cameroon. African Primates 5 (1 & 2), 3-7.

    Dupain, J. et al. (2004) High chimpanzee and gorilla densities in a non-protected area on the northern periphery of the Dja Faunal Reserve, Cameroon. Oryx 38, 209-216.

    Emlen, J. T. & Schaller, G. B. (1960) Distribution and status of the mountain gorilla, 1959. Zoologica New York 45, 41-52.

    Etiendem, D. N. et al. (2013) The Cross River Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla diehli) at Mawambi Hills, South-West Cameroon: Habitat Suitability and Vulnerability to Anthropogenic Disturbance. Folia Primatologica 84, 18-31.

    Fa, J. E. et al. (2015) Correlates of bushmeat in markets and depletion of wildlife. Conservation Biology 29, 805-815.

    Fay, M. (1989) Partial completion of a census of the western lowland gorilla in southwestern Central African Republic. Mammalia 53, 203-215.

    Fay, J. M. & Agnagna, M. (1992) Census of gorillas in northern Republic of Congo. American Journal of Primatology 27, 275-284.

    Foerster, S. et al. (2012) Correlates of bushmeat hunting among remote rural households in Gabon, Central Africa. Conservation Biology 26, 335-344.

    Garcia, J. E. & Mba, J. (1997) Distribution, status and conservation of primates in Monte Alen National Park, Equatorial Guinea. Oryx 31, 67-76.

    Gatti, S. et al. (2004) Population and group structure of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Lokoué, Republic of Congo. American Journal of Primatology 63, 111-123.

    Glew, L. & Hudson, M. D. (2007) Gorillas in the midst: the impact of armed conflict on the conservation of protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Oryx 41, 140-150.

    Gonzalez-Kirchner J. P. (1997) Census of western lowland gorilla population in Río Muni region, Equatorial Guinea. Folia zoologica 46, 15-22.

    Goodall, A. G. & Groves, C. P. (1977) The conservation of eastern gorillas. S. 599-637 in: Bourne, G. H. (Hrsg.) Primate conservation. New York (Academic Press).

    Gray, M. et al. (2010) Censusing the mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes: complete sweep method versus monitoring. African Journal of Ecology 48 (3), 588-599. 

    Gray, M. et al. (2013) Genetic census reveals increased but uneven growth of a critically endangered mountain gorilla population. Biological Conservation 158, 230-238.

    Groom, A. F. G. (1973/74) Squeezing out the mountain gorilla. Oryx 12, 207-215.

    Guschanski, K. et al. (2009) Counting elusive animals: Comparing field and genetic census of the entire mountain gorilla population of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Biological Conservation 142, 290-300.

    Hall, J. S. et al. (1998) Distribution, abundance and conservation status of Grauer's gorilla. Oryx 32, 122-130.

    Harcourt, A. H. (1977) Virunga gorillas - the case against translocations. Oryx 13, 469-472.

    Harcourt, A. H. (1979) F. P. S. mountain gorilla project: progress report 2. Oryx 15, 114-115.

    Harcourt, A. H. (1986) Gorilla conservation: anatomy of a campaign. S. 31-46 in: Benirschke, K. (Hrsg.) Primates: the road to self-sustaining populations. New York (Springer).

    Harcourt, A. H. (1996) Is the gorilla a threatened species? How should we judge? Biological Conservation 75, 165-176.

    Harcourt, A. H. & Curry-Lindahl, K. (1978) The F. P. S. mountain gorilla project - a report from Rwanda. Oryx 14, 316-324.

    Harcourt, A. H. & Curry-Lindahl, K. (1979) Conservation of the mountain gorilla and its habitat in Rwanda. Environmental Conservation 6, 143-147.

    Harcourt, A. H. & Fossey, D. (1981) The Virunga gorillas: decline of an 'island' population. African Journal of Ecology 19, 83-97.

    Harcourt, A. H. & Groom, A. F. G. (1972) Gorilla census. Oryx 11, 355-363.

    Harcourt, A. H. et al. (1983) Virunga gorilla population. African Journal of Ecology 21, 139-142.

    Harcourt, A. H. & Stewart, K. J. (1980) Gorilla eaters of Gabon. Oryx 15, 248-252.

    Haurez, B. et al. (2014) Western lowland gorilla density and nesting behavior in a Gabonese forest logged for 25 years: implications for gorilla conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 23, 2669-2687.

    Inogwabini, B.-I. et al. (2000) Status of large mammals in the mountain sector of Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, in 1996. African Journal of Ecology 38, 269-276.

    Imong, I. S. et al. (2014) Distinguishing ecological constraints from human activity in species range fragmentation: The case of Cross River gorillas. Animal Conservation 17 (4), 323-331.

    Imong, I. S. et al. (2014)  Informing conservation management about structural versus functional connectivity: A case-study of Cross River gorillas. American Journal of Primatology 76 (10), 978-988.

    Jost Robinson, C. A. et al. (2011) Multi-faceted approaches to understanding changes in wildlife and livelihoods in a protected area: a conservation case study from the Central African Republic. Environmental Conservation 38, 247-255.

    Junker, J. et al. (2012) Recent decline in suitable environmental conditions for African great apes. Diversity and Distributions 18, 1077–1099.

    Kalpers, J. et al. (2003) Gorillas in the crossfire: population dynamics of the Virunga mountain gorillas over the past three decades. Oryx 37, 326-337.

    Kasereka, B. et al. (2006) Vulnerability of habituated Grauer's gorilla to poaching in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park, DRC. African Study Monographs 27 (1), 15-26.

    King, T. et al. (2011) Assessing Initial Reintroduction Success in Long-Lived Primates by Quantifying Survival, Reproduction, and Dispersal Parameters: Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Congo and Gabon. Int. J. Primatol., published online 30 Nov.

    Köndgen, S. et al. (2008) Pandemic human viruses cause decline of endangered great apes. Current Biology 18, 1-5.

    Macdonald, D. W. et al. (2011) Association of body mass with price of bushmeat in Nigeria and Cameroon. Conservation Biology 25, 1220-1228.

    MacKinnon, J. (1976) Mountain gorillas and bonobos. Oryx 13, 372-382.

    Matthews, A. & Matthews, A. (2004) Survey of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southwestern Cameroon. Primates 45, 15-24.

    McNeely, J. A. (2003) Conserving forest biodiversity in times of violent conflict. Oryx 37, 142-152.

    McNeilage, A. et al. (2001) Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: gorilla census 1997. Oryx 35, 39-47.

    McNeilage, A. et al. (2006) Census of the mountain gorilla Gorilla beringei beringei population in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Oryx 40, 419-427.

    Merz, G. (1991) Conservation of the eastern lowland gorilla. Primate Report 29, 65-70.

    Mitani, M. (1990) A note on the present situation of primate fauna found from south-eastern Cameroon to northern Congo. Primates 31, 625-634.

    Mitani, M. (1991) Present situation of primate fauna found in northern Congo and in southeastern Cameroon in the central Africa. S. 43-46 in: Ehara, A. et al. (Hrsg.) Primatology today. Amsterdam (Elsevier).

    Moorhouse, T. P. (2015) The Customer Isn't Always Right - Conservation and Animal Welfare Implications of the Increasing Demand for Wildlife Tourism. PLoS ONE 10 (10), e0138939.

    Morgan, B. J. et al. (2003) Newly discovered gorilla population in the Ebo forest. Littoral Province, Cameroon. International Journal of Primatology 24, 1129-1137.

    Morgan, D. et al. (2006) Ape abundance and habitat use in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology 27, 147-179.

    Murnyak, D. F. (1981) Censusing the gorillas in Kahuzi-Biega National Park. Biological Conservation 21, 163-176.

    Mwanza, N. & Yamagiwa, J. (1989) A note on the distribution of primates between the Zaire-Lualaba river and the African Rift Valley. Interspecies relationships of primates in the tropical and montane forests 1, 5-10.

    Mwanza, N. et al. (1989) Conservation of primates in the Kivu district, Zaire. Interspecies relationships of primates in the tropical and montane forests 1, 113-117.

    Ndunda, M. et al. (1988) Conservation of eastern lowland gorillas in the Masisi region, Zaire. Primate conservation 9, 111-113.

    Nkemnyi, M. F. et al. (2013) Making hard choices: balancing indigenous communities livelihood and Cross River gorilla conservation in the Lebialem-Mone Forest landscape, Cameroon. Environment, Development and Sustainability, online November 2012.

    Oates, J. (1996) African primates. IUCN

    Oates, J. F. (1999) Myth and reality in the rain forest. How conservation strategies are failing in West Africa. Berkeley (University of California Press).

    Oko, R. A. (1991) Distribution and conservation of gorillas and chimpanzees in the Congo. S. 47-50 in: Ehara, A. et al. (Hrsg.) Primatology today. Amsterdam (Elsevier).

    Peterson, D. (2003) Eating Apes. Berkeley (The University of California Press).

    Plumptre, A. J. (2003) Lessons learned from on-the-ground conservation in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. S. 71-91 in: Price, S. V. (Hrsg.) War and tropical forests. New York (Food Products Press).

    Plumptre, A. J. et al. (2015) Status of Grauer’s gorilla and chimpanzees in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: Historical and current distribution and abundance. Report to Arcus Foundation, USAID and US Fish and Wildlife Service.

    Plumptre, A. J. et al. (2016) Catastrophic Decline of World's Largest Primate: 80% Loss of Grauer's Gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) Population Justifies Critically Endangered Status. PLoS ONE 11 (10): e0162697.

    Remis, M. J. (2000) Preliminary assessment of the impacts of human activities on gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla and other wildlife at Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic. Oryx 34, 56-65.

    Remis, M. J. & Kpanou, J. B. (2010) Primate and ungulate abundance in response to multi-use zoning and human extractive activities in a Central African Reserve. African Journal of Ecology 49, 70-80.

    Robbins, M. M. et al. (2011) Extreme Conservation Leads to Recovery of the Virunga Mountain Gorillas. PLoS one 6 (6), e19788.

    Roy, J. et al. (2014) Recent divergences and size decreases of eastern gorilla populations. Biology Letters 10 (11), 20140811.

    Sabater Pí, J. (1981) Exploitation of gorillas in Rio Muni, Republic of Equatorial Guinea, West Africa. Biological Conservation 19, 131-140.

    Sabater Pí, J. & Groves, C. (1972) The importance of higher primates in the diet of the Fang of Rio Muni. Man 7, 239-243.

    Steklis, H. D. & Gerald-Steklis, N. (2001) Status of the Virunga mountain gorilla population. S. 391-412 in: Robbins, M. M. et al. (Hrsg.) Mountain Gorillas. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Stokes, E. J. et al. (2010) Monitoring Great Ape and Elephant Abundance at Large Spatial Scales: Measuring Effectiveness of a Conservation Landscape. PLoS ONE 5 (4), e10294.

    Sunderland-Groves, J. L. et al. (2003) Surveys of the Cross River gorilla and chimpanzee populations in Takamanda Forest Reserve, Cameroon. S. 129-140 in: Comiskey, J. A. et al. (Hrsg.) Takamanda: the biodiversity of an African rainforest. SI/MAB Series 8. Washington, D. C. (Smithsonian Institution).

    Tagg, N. et al. (2015) Conservation research presence protects: a case study of great ape abundance in the Dja region, Cameroon. Animal Conservation. Animal Conservation doi: 10.1111/acv.12212

    Thalmann, O. et al. (2011) Historical sampling reveals dramatic demographic changes in western gorilla populations. BMC Evolutionary Biology April 1, 2011, 11: 85.

    Tranquilli, S. et al. (2012) Lack of conservation effort rapidly increases African great ape extinction risk. Conservation Letters 5, 48-55.

    Tranquilli, S. et al. (2014) Protected areas in tropical Africa: Assessing threats and conservation activities. PLoS One 9 (12): e114154.

    Tutin, C. E. G. (2001) Saving the gorillas and chimpanzees of the Congo Basin. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 13, 469-476.

    Tutin, C. E. G. & Fernandez, M. (1984) Nationwide census of gorilla and chimpanzee populations in Gabon. American Journal of Primatology 6, 313-336.

    Tutin, C. E. G. & Vedder, A. (2001) Gorilla conservation and research in Central Africa. S. 429-448 in: Weber, W. et al. (Hrsg.) African rain forest ecology & conservation. New Haven, London (Yale University Press).

    Vedder, A. (1987) Status of Gorilla gorilla. Primate Conservation 8, 75-81.

    Vliet, N. van et al. (2014) Bushmeat consumption among rural and urban children from Province Orientale, Democratic Republic of Congo. Oryx 49, 165-174.

    Walsh, P. D. et al. (2003) Catastrophic ape decline in western equatorial Africa. Nature 422, 611-614.

    Weber, B. (1985) Le Parc National des Volcans Biosphere Reserve: cooperation between conservation and development. Parks 10 (3), 19-21.

    Weber, A. W. & Vedder, A. (1983) Population dynamics of the Virunga gorillas: 1959-1978. Biological Conservation 26, 341-366.

    White, L. J. T. & Tutin, C. E. G. (2001) Why chimpanzees and gorillas respond differently to logging. S. 449-462 in: Weber, W. et al. (Hrsg.) African rain forest ecology & conservation. New Haven, London (Yale University Press).

    Wilkie, D. S. (2001) Bushmeat trade in the Congo Basin. S. 86-109 in: Beck, B. B. et al. (Hrsg.) Great Apes & Humans. Washington, D. C. (Smithsonian Institution Press).

    Wilkie, D. S. et al. (2001) The under-financing of protected areas in the Congo Basin: so many parks and so little willingness-to-pay. Biodiversity and Conservation 10, 691-709.

    Williamson, E. A. & Gerald-Steklis, N. (2001) Composition of gorilla Gorilla beringei groups monitored by Karisoke Research Centre, 2001. African Primates 5 (1 & 2), 48-51.

    Williamson, L. & Usongo, L. (1996) Survey of gorillas and chimpanzees in the Reserve de Faune du Dja, Cameroun. African Primates 2 (2), 67-72.

    Willie, J. et al. (2013) Density of herbaceous plants and distribution of western gorillas in different habitat types in south-east Cameroon. African Journal of Ecology 51 (1), 111-121.

    Wilson, R. (1984) The mountain gorilla project: Progress report 6. Oryx 18, 223-229.

    Wilson, J. R. (1987) The mountain gorilla project: Progress report 7, Oryx 21, 266-269.

    Wright, J. H. & Priston, N. E. C. (2010) Hunting and trapping in Lebialem Division, Cameroon: bushmeat harvesting practices and human reliance. Endangered Species Research (1), 1-12.

    Yamagiwa, J. (2003) Bushmeat poaching and the conservation crisis in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. S. 115-135 in: Price, S. V. (Hrsg.) War and tropical forests. New York (Food Products Press).

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (1995) Density of apes and other primates with poor THV undergrowth in Petit Loango Reserve, Gabon. African Study Monographs 16 (4), 181-193.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (1989) Distribution and present status of primates in the Kivu district. Interspecies relationships of primates in the tropical and montane forests 1, 11-21.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (1993) A census of the eastern lowland gorillas in Kahuzi-Biega National Park with reference to mountain gorillas in the Virunga region. Biological Conservation 64, 83-89.

  • Evolution, Systematik, Genetik

    Ackermann, R. R. & Bishop, J. M. (2009) Morphological and molecular evidence reveals recent hybridization between gorilla taxa. Evolution 64, 271-290.

    Amato, G. et al. (1999) Molecular systematics for taxonomic placement of a gorilla of uncertain origin. Zoo Biology 18, 429-432.

    Anthony, N. M. et al. (2007) The role of Pleistocene refugia and rivers in shaping gorilla diversity in central Africa. PNAS 104, 20432-20436.

    Arandjelovic, M. et al. (2014) Genetic inference of group dynamics and female kin structure in a western lowland gorilla population (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Primate Biology 1 (1), 29-38.

    Bergl, R. A. & Vigilant, L. (2007) Genetic analysis reveals population structure and recent migration within the highly fragmented range of the Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli). Molecular Ecology 16, 501-516.

    Bergl, R. A. et al. (2008) Effects of habitat fragmentation, population size and gemographic history on genetic diversity: the Cross River gorilla in a comparative context. American Journal of Primatology 70, 848-859.

    Beringe, R. von (1903) Bericht des Hauptmanns von Beringe über seine Expedition nach Ruanda. Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 234-235, 264-266, 296-298, 317-319.

    Borowik, O. A. (1995) Coding chromosomal data for phylogenetic analysis: Phylogenetic resolution of the Pan-Homo-Gorilla trichotomy. Systematic Biology 44, 563-570.

    Bradley, B. J. et al. (2004) Dispersed male networks in western gorillas. Current Biology 14, 510-513.

    Breuer, T. et al. (2012) Phenotypic correlates of male reproductive success in western gorillas. Journal of Human Evolution 62, 466-472.

    Butynski, T. M. & Kalina, J. (1990) Taxonomic status of gorillas in the Impenetrable (Bwindi) Forest, Uganda. American Zoologist 30 (4), 73A.

    Casimir, M. J. (1975) Some data on the systematic position of the eastern gorilla population of the Mt. Kahuzi region (Rep. of Zaire). Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie 66, 188-201.

    Clifford, S. L. et al. (2003) Genetic studies of western gorillas. S. 269-292 in: Taylor, A. B. & Goldsmith, M. L. (Hrsg.) Gorilla biology. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Clifford, S. L. et al. (2004) Mitochondrial DNS phylogeography of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Molecular Ecology 13, 1551-1565.

    Coolidge, H. J. (1929) A revision of the genus Gorilla. Mem. Harv. Mus. comp. Zool. 50, 295-381.

    Easteal, S. (1991) The relative role of DNA evolution in primates. Molecular Biology and Evolution 8, 115-127.

    Elgart, A. A. (2010) Are the gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park "true" mountain gorillas? American Journal of Physical Anthropology 141, 561-570.

    Ferris, S. D. et al. (1981) Evolutionary tree for apes and humans based on cleavage maps of mitochondrial DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 78, 2432-2436.

    Field, D. et al. (1998) Paternity determination in captive lowland gorillas and orangutans and wild mountain gorillas by microsatellite analysis. Primates 39, 199-209.

    Fleischhacker, H. (1968) Die Frankfurter Gorilla-Zwillinge. Anthropologischer Anzeiger 31, 55-69.

    Fünfstück, T. et al. (2014) The genetic population structure of wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) living in continuous rain forest. American Journal of Primatology, 76 (9), 868-878.

    Fünfstück, T. & Vigilant, L. (2015) The Geographic Distribution of Genetic Diversity within Gorillas. American Journal of Primatology 77, 974-985.

    Garner, K. J. & Ryder, O. A. (1996) Mitochondrial DNA diversity in gorillas. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 6, 39-48.

    Ghiglieri, M. P. (1987) Sociobiology of the great apes and the hominoid ancestor. Journal of Human Evolution 16, 319-357.

    Ghiglieri, M. P. (1989) Hominoid sociobiology and hominid social evolution. S. 370-379 in: Heltne, P. G. & Marquardt, L. A. (Hrsg.) Understanding chimpanzees. Cambridge, Mass. (Harvard University Press).

    Glen, D. R. & Brooks, D. R. (1986) Parasitological evidence pertaining to the phylogeny of the hominoid primates. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 27, 331-354.

    Goldsmith, M. & Taylor, A. (1999) Revision of the genus Gorilla: 70 years after Coolidge. Gorilla Journal 18, 15-17.

    Goodman, M. (1986) Molecular evidence on the ape subfamily Homininae. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 218, 121-132.

    Groves, C. P. (1970) Population systematics of the gorilla. Journal of Zoology London 161, 287-300.

    Groves, C. P. (1971) Distribution and place of origins of the gorilla. Man 6, 44-51.

    Groves, C. P. (1986) Systematics of the great apes. S. 187-217 in: Swindler, D. R. & Erwin, J. (Hrsg.) Comparative primate biology Vol. 1: systematics, evolution and anatomy. New York (Alan R. Liss).

    Groves, C. (1996) Müssen wir die Gorillas neu einteilen? Do we need to update the taxonomy of gorillas? Gorilla-Journal 12

    Groves, C. (2000) What, if anything, is taxonomy? Gorilla-Journal 21, 12-15.

    Groves, C. P. (2001) Primate Taxonomy. Washington, London (Smithsonian Institution Press).

    Groves, C. P. (2001) Why taxonomic stability is a bad idea, or: Why there are so few species of primates (or are there?) Evolutionary Anthropology 10, 192-198.

    Groves, C. P. (2003) A history of gorilla taxonomy. S. 15-34 in: Taylor, A. B. & Goldsmith, M. L. (Hrsg.) Gorilla biology. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Groves, C. P. & Stott, K. W. (1979) Systematic relationships of gorillas from Kahuzi, Tshiaberimu and Kayonza. Folia primatologica 32, 161-179.

    Grubb, P. et al. (2003) An assessment of the diversity of African primates. International Journal of Primatology 24, 1301-1357.

    Jabbour, R. S. & Pearman, T. L. (2016) Geographic variation in gorilla limb bones. Journal of Human Evolution 95, 68-79.

    Jensen-Seaman, M. I. & Kidd, K. K. (2001) Mitochondrial DNA variation and biogeography of eastern gorillas. Molecular Ecology 10, 2241-2247.

    Jensen-Seaman, M. I. et al. (2004) Nuclear integrations of mitochondrial DNA in gorillas. American Journal of Primatology 63, 139-147.

    LeMay, N. & Geschwind, N. (1975) Hemispheric differences in the brains of great apes. Brain, Behav. and Evolution 11, 48-52.

    Lukas, D. et al. (2004) Major histocompatibility complex and microsatellite variation in two populations of wild gorillas. Molecular Ecology 13, 3389-3402.

    Matschie, P. (1903) Über einen Gorilla aus Deutsch-Ostafrika. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde Berlin 253-259.

    Morell, V. (1994) Will primate genetics split one gorilla into two? Science 265, 1661.

    Roy, J. et al. (2014) Fine-scale genetic structure analyses suggest further male than female dispersal in mountain gorillas. BMC Ecology 14, 21.

    Ruvolo, M. et al. (1991) Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (USA) 88, 1570-1574.

    Ruvolo, M. et al. (1994) Gene trees and hominoid phylogeny. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 8900-8904.

    Saitou, N. & Nei, M. (1986) The number of nucleotides required to determine the branching order of three species with special reference to the human-chimpanzee-gorilla divergence. Journal of Molecular Evolution 24, 189-204.

    Sarmiento, E. E. (2003) Distribution, taxonomy, genetics, ecology, and causal links of gorilla survival: the need to develop practical knowledge for gorilla conservation. S. 432-471 in: Taylor, A. B. & Goldsmith, M. L. (Hrsg.) Gorilla biology. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Sarmiento, E. E. & Butynski, T. M. (1996) Neue Fragen zur Gorilla-Taxonomie. Gorilla-Journal 12.

    Sarmiento, E. E. et al. (1996) Gorillas of Bwindi-Impenetrable Forest and the Virunga Volcanoes: Taxonomic implications of morphological and ecological differences. American Journal of Primatology 40, 1-21.

    Sarmiento, E. E. & Oates, J. F. (1999) Eigene Gorilla-Unterart in Nigeria? Gorilla Journal 19.

    Satta, Y. et al. (2000) DNA archives and our nearest relative: the trichotomy problem revisited. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 14, 259-275.

    Savage, T. S. & Wyman, J. (1847) Notice of the external characters and habits of Troglodytes gorilla, a new species of orang from the Gaboon river, osteology of the same. Boston Journal of Natural History 5, 417-443.

    Scally, A. et al. (2012) Insights into hominid volution from the gorilla genome sequence. Nature 483, 169-175.

    Scally, A. et al. (2013) A Genome-Wide Survey of Genetic Variation in Gorillas Using Reduced Representation Sequencing. PLoS ONE 8 (6), e65066.

    Shea, B. T. (1983) Phyletic size change and brain/body scaling: A consideration based on the African pongids and other primates. International Journal of Primatology 4, 33-62.

    Shea, B. T. (1983) Size and diet in the evolution of African ape craniodental form. Folia Primatologica 40, 32-68.

    Shea, B. T. (1985) Ontogenetic allometry and scaling: A discussion based on the growth and form of the skull in African apes. S. 175-205 in: Jungers, W. L. (Hrsg.) Size and scaling in primate biology. New York (Plenum).

    Shea, B. T. (1985) The ontogeny of sexual dimorphism in the African apes. American Journal of Primatology 8, 183-188.

    Sherwood, C. C. et al. (2004) Brain structure variation in great apes, with attention to the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei). American Journal of Primatology 63, 149-164.

    Shoshani, J. et al. (1996) Primate phylogeny: morphological vs molecular results. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 5, 102-254.

    Sibley, C. G. & Ahlquist, J. E. (1987) DNA hybridization evidence of hominoid phylogeny: Results from an expanded data set. Journal of Molecular Evolution 26, 99-121.

    Smouse, P. E. & Li, W.-H. (1987) Likelihood analysis of mitochondrial restriction-cleavage patterns for the human-chimpanzee-gorilla trichotomy. Evolution 41, 1162-1176.

    Stanford, C. B. (2001) The subspecies concept in primatology: the case of mountain gorillas. Primates 42, 309-318.

    Stumpf, R. M. et al. (2003) Patterns of diversity in gorilla cranial morphology. S. 35-61 in: Taylor, A. B. & Goldsmith, M. L. (Hrsg.) Gorilla biology. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Takahata N (1992) Man's place in Hominoidea revealed by mitochondrial DNA genealogy. J. mol. Evol. 35, 32-43

    Thalmann, O. et al. (2006) The complex evolutionary history of gorillas: insights from genomic data. Mol. Biol. Evol. 24, 146-158.

    Thalmann, O. et al. (2011) Historical sampling reveals dramatic demographic changes in western gorilla populations. BMC Evolutionary Biology April 1, 2011, 11, 85.

    Tocheri, M. W. et al. (2016) The Evolutionary Origin and Population History of the Grauer Gorilla. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 159, S4–S18.

    Tuttle, R. H. (1967) Knuckle-walking and the evolution of hominoid hands. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 26, 171-206.

    Tuttle, R. H. & Basmajian, J. V. (1975) Electromyography of Pan gorilla: an experimental approach to the problem of hominization. Proceedings of the Symposia of the 5th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Tokyo, 303-314.

    Vigilant, L. & Bradley, B. J. (2004) Genetic variation in gorillas. American Journal of Primatology 64, 161-172.

    Vigilant, L. et al. (2015) Reproductive competition and inbreeding avoidance in a primate species with habitual female dispersal. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 69, 1163-1172.

    Xue, Y. et al. (2015) Mountain gorilla genomes reveal the impact of long-term population decline and inbreeding. Science 348 (6231), 242-245.

    Vogel, C. (1961) Zur systematischen Untergliederung der Gattung Gorilla anhand von Untersuchungen der Mandibel. Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 26, 65-76.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (2003) Intra-specific variation in social organization of gorillas: implications for their social evolution. Primates 44, 359-369.

    Yohn, C. T. et al. (2005) Lineage-specific expansions of retroviral insertions within the genomes of African great apes but not humans and orangutans. PLoS Biology 3 (4), 577-587.

  • Geburt, Mutter-Kind-Beziehung, Jungtierentwicklung

    Carter, F. S. (1973) Comparison of baby gorillas with human infants at birth and during the postnatal period. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust 10th Annual Report, 29-33.

    Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. (1977) A Piagetan model for describing and comparing socialization in monkey, ape and human infants. S. 159-187 in: Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. & Poirier, F. E. (Hrsg.) Primate bio-social development. New York (Garland).

    Eckardt, W. et al. (2016) Weaned age variation in the Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei): influential factors. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 70, 493-507.

    Fletcher, A. (2001) Development of infant independence from the mother in wild mountain gorillas. S. 153-182 in: Robbins, M. M. et al. (eds.) Mountain Gorillas. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Fossey, D. (1979) Development of the mountain gorilla: The first thirty-six months. In: The great apes, D. A. Hamburg & E. McCown (Hrsg.), Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, S. 139-184.

    Hoff, M. P. et al. (1981) Development of infant independence in a captive group of lowland gorillas. Dev. Psychobiol. 14, 251-265.

    Hoff, M. P. et al. (1981) The development of infant play in a captive group of lowland gorillas. American Journal of Primatology 1, 65-72.

    Hoff, M. P. et al. (1983) Maternal transport and infant motor development in a captive group of lowland gorillas. Primates 24, 77-85.

    Hughes, J. & Redshaw, M. (1973) The psychological development of two infant gorillas: a preliminary report. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust 10th Annual Report, 34-36.

    Hughes, J. & Redshaw, M. (1974) Cognitive, manipulative and social skills in gorillas: Part I, the first year. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust 11th Annual Report, 53-60.

    Kingsley, S. (1977) Early mother-infant behaviour in two species of great ape, Gorilla gorilla gorilla and Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus. Dodo 14, 55-65.

    Kingsley, S. R. (1988) Physiological development of male orang-utans and gorillas. S. 123-131 in: Schwartz, J. H. (Hrsg.) Orang-utan biology. New York (Oxford University Press).

    Lang, E. M. et al. (1965) Gorilla Mutter und Kind. Basel (Basilius Presse).

    Meder, A. (1991) Schwangerschaftsdauer und Geburtsgewichte. Gestation length and birth weight. In: Kirchshofer, R. Internationales Zuchtbuch für den Gorilla, 1990. International Studbook of the Gorilla, 1990, 195. Frankfurt.

    Meder, A. (1992) Geburtenabstände und Jungtiersterblichkeit im ersten Lebensjahr bei Flachlandgorillas in Zoos - Interbirth intervals and infant mortality in the first year in captive lowland gorillas. S. 286-292 in: Kirchshofer, R. Internationales Zuchtbuch für den Gorilla, 1991. International Studbook of the Gorilla, 1991. Frankfurt.

    Nadler, R. D. (1974) Periparturitional behavior of a primiparous lowland gorilla. Primates 15, 55-73.

    Nowell, A. A. & Fletcher, A. W. (2007) Development of independence from the mother in Gorilla gorilla gorilla. International Journal of Primatology 28, 441-455.

    Nowell, A. A. & Fletcher, A. W. (2008) The development of feeding behaviour in wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Behaviour 145, 171-193.

    Redshaw, M. (1975) Cognitive, manipulative and social skills in gorillas: Part II, the second year. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust 12th Annual Report, 56-60.

    Redshaw, M. (1978) Cognitive development in human and gorilla infants. Journal of Human Evolution 7, 133-141.

    Redshaw, M. (1989) A comparison of neonatal behaviour and reflexes in the great apes. Journal of Human Evolution 18, 191 ff.

    Redshaw, M. & Locke, K. (1976) The development of play and social behaviour in two lowland gorilla infants. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust 13th Annual Report, 71-85.

    Robbins, A. M. et al. (2007) Maternal investment of the Virunga Mountain gorillas. Ethology 113, 235-245.

    Rosenbaum, S. et al. (2016) Infant Mortality Risk and Paternity Certainty Are Associated with Postnatal Maternal Behavior toward Adult Male Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). PLoS ONE 11 (2): e0147441

    Schenkel, R. (1964) Zur Ontogenese des Verhaltens bei Gorilla und Mensch. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie 54, 233-259.

    Stewart, K. J. (1977) The birth of a wild mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Primates 18, 965-976.

    Stewart, K. J. (1984) Parturition in wild gorillas: behaviour of mothers, neonates, and others. Folia primatologica 42, 62-69.

    Stewart, K. J. (1988) Suckling and lactational anoestrus in wild gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 83, 627-634.

    Stewart, K. J. (2001) Social relationships of immature gorillas and silverbacks. S. 183-213 in: Robbins, M. M. et al. (eds.) Mountain Gorillas. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Usher-Smith, J. H. et al. (1976) Comparative physical development in six hand-reared lowland gorillas at the Jersey Zoological Park. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust 13th Annual Report, 63-70.

    Vermeer, J. & Devreese, L. (2015) Birth sex ratio, infant mortality and rearing type in captive western lowland gorillas. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 3 (1), 6-10.

    Watts, D. P. & Hess, J. (1988) Twin birth in wild mountain gorillas. Oryx 22, 5-6.

    Whittier, C. A. et al. (2011) Proximate composition of milk from free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Zoo Biology 30, 308-317.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (2009) Infanticide and social flexibility in the genus Gorilla. Primates 50, 293-303.

  • Historisches

    Allen, J. G. (1931) Gorilla hunting in southern Nigeria. Nigerian Field 1, 4-5.

    Baumgärtel, W. (1958) The Muhavura gorillas. Primates 1, 79-83.

    Baumgärtel, W. (1976) Up among the mountain gorillas. New York (Hawthorn Books).

    Beringe, R. von (1903) Bericht des Hauptmanns von Beringe über seine Expedition nach Ruanda. Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 234-235, 264-266, 296-298, 317-319.

    Bingham, H. C. (1932) Gorillas in a native habitat. Carnegie Institute Washington Publication 426, 1-66.

    Brodersen, K. (2001): Savage's Savages. How the Gorilla became a Savage Beast because of Hanno's Periplus. S. 87-98 in: Geus, K. et al. (Hrsg.) Punica, Lybica, Ptolemaica: Festschrift für Werner Huß zum 65. Geburtstag. Leuven (Peeters).

    Denis, A. (1964) Auf Safari durch vier Kontinente. München (Piper).

    Donisthorpe, J. (1958) A pilot study of the mountain gorilla. South African Journal of Science 54, 195-217.

    Du Chaillu, P. (1861) Explorations and adventures in equatorial Africa. New York.

    Fossey, D. (1970) Making friends with mountain gorillas. National Geographical Magazine 137, 48-67.

    Fossey, D. (1971) More years with mountain gorillas. National Geographic Magazine 140, 574-585.

    Imanishi, K. (1958) Gorillas: a preliminary survey in 1958. Primates 1 (2), 73-78.

    Kawai, M. & Mizuhara, H. (1962) An ecological study on the wild mountain gorilla. Primates 2, 1-42.

    Koppenfels, H. von (1877) Meine Jagden auf Gorillas. Gartenlaube 416-420.

    Lipinski, E. (2001) Gorillas. S. 79-86 in: Geus, K. et al. (Hrsg.) Punica, Lybica, Ptolemaica: Festschrift für Werner Huß zum 65. Geburtstag. Leuven (Peeters).

    Meder, A. (1995) Men who named the African apes. Gorilla-Journal 11.

    Merfield, F. G. & Miller, H. (1956) Gorillas were my neighbours. London (Longmans, Green & Co.).

    Merfield, F. G. & Miller, H. (1956) Gorilla hunter. New York (Farrer Strams).

    Newman, J. L. (2013) Encountering Gorillas: A Chronicle of Discovery, Exploitation, Understanding, and Survival. Lanham (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers).

    Pitman, C. R. S. (1931) A game warden among his charges. London.

    Pitman, C. R. S. (1935) The gorillas of the Kayonsa region, western Kigezi, S. W. Uganda. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1935, 477-494.

    Reel, M. (2013) Between Man and Beast: An Unlikely Explorer and the African Adventure that Took the Victorian World by Storm. Hardcover (Doubleday).

    Savage, T. S. & Wyman, J. (1847) Notice of the external characters and habits of Troglodytes gorilla, a new species of orang from the Gaboon river, osteology of the same. Boston Journal of Natural History 5, 417-443.

    Wordsworth, J. (1961) Gorilla mountain. London (Lutterworth).

    Yerkes, R. M. (1927) The mind of a gorilla, part I. Genetic Psychol. Monogr. 2, 1-191.

    Yerkes, R. M. (1927) The mind of a gorilla, part II. Genetic Psychol. Monogr. 2, 377-551.

    Yerkes, R. M. (1928) The mind of a gorilla, part III. Comparative Psychol. Monogr. 5 (2), 1-92.

    Yerkes, R. M. & Yerkes, A. W. (1929) The great apes. London (Oxford University Press).

  • Kinderbücher

    Abenteuer & Wissen. Jane Goodall und Dian Fossey - Unter wilden Menschenaffen
    Autorin: Maja Nielsen
    Jahr: 2008
    Verlag: Gerstenberg
    ISBN: 3836948427

    Affen
    Autorin: Barbara Taylor
    Jahr: 2004
    Verlag: Kosmos
    ISBN: 3440098206

    Benny Blu - Gorillas: Große Menschenaffen
    Autorin: Nicola Herbst
    Jahr: 2013
    Verlag: Kinderleicht Wissen
    ISBN: 3865700500

    Berggorillas: Zu Besuch bei unseren Verwandten
    Autoren: Anja und Andreas Klotz
    Jahr: 2010
    Verlag: TIPP 4
    ISBN: 3981294424

    Gute Nacht, Gorilla!
    Autorin: Peggy Rathmann
    Jahr: 2013
    Verlag: Moritz Verlag
    ISBN: 389565177X

    Ich, Gorilla und der Affenstern
    Autorin: Frida Nilsson
    Jahr: 2012
    Verlag: Beltz & Gelberg
    ISBN: 3407743289

    Jeder kann was! Die Geschichte eines klugen Gorillamädchens
    Autorin: Ingrid Jäger-Gutjahr
    Jahr: 2014
    Verlag: Tipp 4
    ISBN 978-3-9439690-7-8

  • Krankheiten

    Antonation, K. S. et al. (2016) Bacillus cereus Biovar Anthracis Causing Anthrax in Sub-Saharan Africa - Chromosomal Monophyly and Broad Geographic Distribution. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10 (9): e0004923.

    Ashford R. W. et al. (1996) Patterns of intestinal parasitism in the mountain gorilla Gorilla gorilla in the Bwindi-Impenetrable Forest, Uganda. Journal of Zoology 239 (3), 507-514.

    Ashford, R. W. et al. (1990) The intestinal faunas of man and mountain gorillas in a shared habitat. Ann. trop. Med. Parasitol. 84, 337-340.

    Benirschke, K. & Adams, F. D. (1980) Gorilla diseases and causes of death. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 28, 139-148.

    Byers, A. C. & Hastings, B. (1991) Mountain gorilla mortality and climatic factors in the Parc National des Volcans, Ruhengeri Prefecture, Rwanda, 1988. Mountain research and development 11 (2), 145-151.

    Cameron, K. N. et al. (2016): Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of a Mortality Event among Central African Great Apes. PLoS ONE 11 (5), e0154505.

    Cousins, D. (1974) A review of some complaints suffered by captive gorillas with notes of some causes of death in wild gorillas. Der Zoologische Garten 44, 201-210.

    Cousins, D. (1978) Notes on bacterial and fungal infections in the gorilla. International Zoo News 151, 19-24.

    Cousins, D. (1982) Dental diseases in the gorilla. International Zoo News 29 (1), No. 175, 10-18.

    Cousins, D. (1983) Mortality factors in captive gorillas. International Zoo News 30 (3), No. 179, 5-17.

    Cousins, D. (1984) Notes on the occurence of skin infections in gorillas. Der Zoologische Garten 54, 333-338.

    Cousins, D. & Huffman, M. A. (2002) Medicinal Properties in the Diet of Gorillas: an Ethno-Pharmacological Evaluation. African Study Monographs 23 (2), 65-89.

    D’arc, M. et al. (2015) Origin of the HIV-1 group O epidemic in western lowland gorillas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 112 (11), E1343-E1352.

    Dean, M. C. et al. (1992) The natural history of tooth wear, continuous eruption and periodontal disease in wild shot great apes. J. hum. Evol. 22, 23-39.

    Devos, C. et al. (2008) Monitoring population decline: can transect surveys detect the impact of the Ebola virus on apes? Oryx 42, 367-374.

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    Stoinski, T. S. et al. (2013) Variability in the Developmental Life History of the
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    Tutin, C. E. G. (1996) Ranging and social structure of lowland gorillas in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. S. 58-70 in: McGrew, W. et al. (Hrsg.) Great ape societies. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Tutin, C. E. G. & Fernandez, M. (1983) Gorillas feeding on termites in Gabon, West Africa. Journal of Mammalogy 64, 530-531.

    Tutin, C. E. G. & Fernandez, M. (1985) Foods consumed by sympatric populations of Gorilla gorilla gorilla and Pan troglodytes troglodytes in Gabon: Some preliminary data. International Journal of Primatology 6, 27-44.

    Tutin, C. & Fernandez, M. (1987) Sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in Gabon. Anthroquest 37, 3-6.

    Tutin, C. E. G. & Fernandez, M. (1993) Composition of the diet of chimpanzees and comparisons with that of sympatric lowland gorillas in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. American Journal of Primatology 30, 195-211.

    Tutin, C. E. G. & Fernandez, M. (1994) Comparison of food processing by sympatric apes in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. S. 29-36 in: Current Primatology Vol. 1. Strasbourg.

    Tutin C. E. G. et al. (1997) The primate community of the Lope Reserve, Gabon: Diets, responses to fruit scarcity, and effects on biomass. American Journal of Primatology 42, 1-24.

    Tutin, C. E. G. et al. (1995) Nest building by lowland gorillas in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. International Journal of Primatology 16, 53-76.

    Tutin C. E. G. et al. (1991) A case study of a plant-animal interaction: Cola lizae and lowland gorillas in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. Journal tropical Ecology 7, 181-199.

    Vedder, A. L. (1984) Movement patterns of a group of free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) and their relation to food availability. American Journal of Primatology 7, 73-88.

    Voysey, B. C. et al. (1999) Gorillas and seed dispersal in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. Journal tropical Ecology 15, 23-60.

    Watts, D. P. (1984) Composition and variability of mountain gorilla diets in the central Virungas. American Journal of Primatology 7, 323-356.

    Watts, D. P. (1985) Observations on the ontogeny of feeding behavior in mountain gorillas. American Journal of Primatology 8, 1-10.

    Watts, D. P. (1985) Relations between group size and composition and feeding competition in mountain gorilla groups. Animal Behaviour 33, 72-85.

    Watts, D. P (1987) Effects of mountain gorilla foraging activities on the productivity of their food plant species. African Journal of Ecology 25, 155-163.

    Watts, D. P. (1988) Environmental influences on mountain gorilla time budgets. American Journal of Primatology 15, 195-211.

    Watts, D. P. (1989) Infanticide in mountain gorillas: New cases and a reconsideration of the evidence. Ethology 81, 1-18.

    Watts, D. P. (1989) Ant eating behavior of mountain gorillas. Primates 30, 121-125.

    Watts, D. P. (1990) Mountain gorilla life histories, reproductive competition, and sociosexual behavior and some implications for captive husbandry. Zoo Biology 9, 185-200.

    Watts, D. P. (1990) Ecology of gorillas and its relation to female transfer in mountain gorillas. International Journal of Primatology 11, 21-45.

    Watts, D. P. (1991) Strategies of habitat use by mountain gorillas. Folia Primatologica 56, 1-16.

    Watts, D. P. (1996) Comparative socio-ecology of gorillas. S. 16-28 in: McGrew, W. et al. (eds.) Great ape societies. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Watts, D. P. (1998) Long-term habitat use by mountain gorillas. 1. consistency, variation and home range size and stability. International Journal of Primatology 19, 651-680.

    Watts, D. P. (1998) Long-term habitat use by mountain gorillas. 2. reuse of foraging areas in relation to resource abundance, quality, and depletion. International Journal of Primatology 19, 681-702.

    Watts, D. P. (2000) Causes and consequences of variation in male mountain gorilla life histories and group membership. S. 169-179 in: Kappeler, P. M. (Hrsg.) Primate males. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Watts, D. P. (2000) Mountain gorilla habitat use strategies and group movements. S. 351-374 in: Boinski, S. & Garber, P. A. (Hrsg.) On the move. Chicago (University of Chicago Press).

    Weber A. W. & Vedder A (1983) Population dynamics of the Virunga gorillas: 1959-1978. Biological Conservation 26, 341-366.

    Williamson, E. A. et al. (1988) Western lowland gorillas feeding in streams and on savannas. Primate Report 19, 29-34.

    Williamson, E. A. et al. (1990) Composition of the diet of lowland gorillas at Lopé in Gabon. American Journal of Primatology 21, 265-277.

    Willie, J. et al. (2014) Plant selection for nest building by western lowland gorillas in Cameroon. Primates 55, 41-49.

    Wina, E. (1989) Observations on the nesting of eastern lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla graueri at the Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Zaire. Interspecies relationships of primates in the tropical and montane forests 1, 97-101.

    Wright, E. & Robbins, M. M. (2014) Proximate mechanisms of contest competition among female Bwindi mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 68 (11), 1785-1797.

    Wright, E. et al. (2014) Dominance rank differences in the energy intake and expenditure of female Bwindi mountain gorillas. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 68 (6), 957-970.

    Yamagiwa, J. (1986) Activity rhythm and the ranging of a solitary male mountain gorilla. Primates 27, 273-282.

    Yamagiwa, J. (1987) Intra- and inter-group interactions of an all-male group of mountain gorillas. Primates 28, 1-30.

    Yamagiwa, J. (1987) Male life histories and the social structure of wild mountain gorillas. S. 31-51 in: Kawano, S. et al. (Hrsg.) Evolution and coadaptation in biotic communities. Tokyo (University of Tokyo Press).

    Yamagiwa, J. (1999) Socioecological factors influencing population structure of gorillas and chimpanzees. Primates 40, 87-104.

    Yamagiwa, J. (2001) Factors influencing the formation of ground nests by eastern lowland gorillas in Kahuzi-Biega National Park: some evolutionary implications of nesting behavior. Journal of Human Evolution 40, 99-109.

    Yamagiwa, J. (2004) Diet and foraging of the great apes: ecological constraints on their social organizations and implications for their divergence. S. 210-233 in: Russon, A. E. & Begun, D. R. (Hrsg.) The evolution of thought: evolutionary origins of great ape intelligence. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Yamagiwa, J. & Basabose, A. K. (2006) Diet and seasonal changes in sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees at Kahuzi-Biega National Park. Primates 47, 74-90.

    Yamagiwa, J. & Basabose, A. K. (2006) Effects of fruit scarcity on foraging strategies of sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees. S. 73-96 in: Hohmann, G. et al. (Hrsg.) Feeding ecology in apes and other primates. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Yamagiwa, J. & Basabose, A. K. (2014) Socioecological Flexibility of Gorillas and Chimpanzees. S. 43-74 in: Yamagiwa, J. & Karczmarski, L. (eds.) (2014) Primates and Cetaceans: Field Research and Conservation of Complex Mammalian Societies (Primatology Monographs). Springer.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (1989) A preliminary study on sympatric populations of Gorilla g. graueri and Pan t. schweinfurthii in eastern Zaire. Interspecies relationships of primates in the tropical and montane forests 1, 23-40.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (1996) Dietary and ranging overlap in sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Zaire. S. 82-98 in: McGrew, W. et al. (Hrsg.) Great ape societies. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (2005) Diet of Grauer's gorillas in the Montane Forest of Kahuzi, Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology 26, 1345-1373.

    Yamagiwa, J. & Kahekwa, J. (2001) Dispersal patterns, group structure, and reproductive parameters of eastern lowland gorillas at Kahuzi in the absence of infanticide. S. 89-122 in: Robbins, M. M. et al. (Hrsg.) Mountain Gorillas. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press)

    Yamagiwa, J. & Mwanza, N. (1994) Day-journey length and daily diet of solitary male gorillas in lowland and highland habitats. International Journal of Primatology 15, 207-224.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (1991) Ant eating by eastern lowland gorillas. Primates 32, 247-253.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (1992) Travel distances and food habits of eastern lowland gorillas: A comparative analysis. S. 267-281 in: Itoigawa, M. et al. (Hrsg.) Topics in Primatology Vol. 2: Behavior, ecology and conservation. Univ. of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (1994) Seasonal change in the composition of the diet of eastern lowland gorillas. Primates 35, 1-14.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (2003) Within-group feeding competition and socioecological factors influencing social organization of gorillas in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. S. 328-357 in: Taylor, A. B. & Goldsmith, M. L. (Hrsg.) Gorilla biology. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (2003) Intra-specific variation in social organization of gorillas: implications for their social evolution. Primates 44, 359-369.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (2009) Infanticide and social flexibility in the genus Gorilla. Primates 50, 293-303.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (2012) Long-term research on Grauer’s gorillas in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, DRC: life history, foraging strategies, and ecological differentiation from sympatric chimpanzees. S. 385-412 in: Kappeler, P. M. & Watts, D. P. (Hrsg.) Long-term field studies of primates. Berlin, Heidelberg (Springer).

    Yumoto, T. et al. (1989) Feeding habit of primates in the tropical forests of eastern Zaire. Interspecies relationships of primates in the tropical and montane forests 1, 41-51.

  • Physiologie

    Clark, F. E. et al. (2012) Relationship Between Behavior, Adrenal Activity, and Environment in Zoo-Housed Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Zoo Biology 31, 306–321.

    Czekala, N. M. et al. (1987) Direct measurements of urinary estrone conjugates during the normal menstrual cycle of the gorilla. American Journal of Primatology 12, 223-229.

    Czekala, N. & Robbins, M. M. (2001) Assessment of reproduction and stress through hormone analysis in gorillas. S. 317-339 in: Robbins, M. M. et al. (eds.) Mountain Gorillas. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press)

    Czekala, N. & Sicotte, P. (2000) Reproductive monitoring of free-ranging female mountain gorillas by urinary hormone analysis. American Journal of Primatology 51, 209-215.

    Gamble, K. C. et al. (2011) Blood groups in the Species Survival Plan, European Endangered Species Program, and managed in situ populations of bonobo (Pan paniscus), common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), gorilla (Gorilla ssp.) and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus ssp.). Zoo Biology 30, 427-444.

    Gould, K. G. & Kling, O. R. (1982) Fertility in the male gorilla: relationships to semen parameters and serum hormones. American Journal of Primatology 2, 311-316.

    Habumuremyi, S. et al. (2016) Endocrine assessment of ovarian cycle activity in wild female mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Physiology & Behavior 157, 185–195.

    Magliocca, F. E. & Gautier-Hion, A. (2002) Mineral content as a basis for food selection by western lowland gorillas in a forest clearing. American Journal of Primatology 57, 67-77.

    McClure, H. M. et al. (1972) Hematologic and blood chemistry data for the gorilla. Folia Primatologica 18, 300-316.

    Mitchell, W. R. et al. (1982) Urinary immuno-reactive estrogen and pregnanediol-3 glucuronide during the normal menstrual cycle of the female lowland gorilla. American Journal of Primatology 2, 167-175.

    Nadler, R. D. & Collins, D. C. (1991) Copulatory frequency, urinary pregnanediol, and fertility in great apes. American Journal of Primatology 24, 167-179.

    Nadler, R. D. et al. (1979) Plasma gonadotropins, prolactin, gonadal steroids, and genital swelling during the menstrual cycle of lowland gorillas. Endocrinology 105, 290-296.

    Patterson, F. G. P. et al. (1991) Cyclic changes in hormonal, physical, behavioral, and linguistic measures in a female lowland gorilla. American Journal of Primatology 24, 181-194.

    Peel, A. J. et al. (2005) Non-invasive fecal hormone analysis and behavioral observations for monitoring stress responses in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Zoo Biology 24, 431-445.

    Platz, C. C. (1987) Evaluating the fertility of the male lowland gorilla. International Zoo News 34(6), No. 205, 13-17.

    Remis, M. J. et al. (2001) Nutritional aspects of western lowland gorilla diet during seasons of fruit scarcity at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. International Journal of Primatology 22, 807-836.

    Robbins, M. M. & Czekala, N. M. (1997) A preliminary investigation of urinary testosterone and cortisol levels in wild male mountain gorillas. American Journal pf Primatology 43, 51-64.

    Socha, W. W. & Moor-Jankowski, J. (1979) Blood groups of anthropoid apes and their relationship to human blood groups. Journal of Human Evolution 8, 453-465.

    Stoinski, T. S. et al. (2002) Urinary androgen and corticoid levels in captive male western lowland gorillas: age- and social group-related differences. American Journal of Primatology 56, 73-87.

    Whittier, C. A. et al. (2011) Proximate composition of milk from free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Zoo Biology 30, 308-317.

  • Regenwald-Problematik in Afrika; Politik, Wirtschaft in Afrika

    Abernethy, K. A. et al. (2013) Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 368, 20120303.

    Aveling, R. J. (1987) Environmental education in developing countries. S. 231-262 in: Marsh, C. W. & Mittermeier, R. A. (Hrsg.) Primate conservation in the tropical rain forest. New York (Alan R. Liss).

    Barbier, E. B. et al. (1994) The economics of the tropical timber trade. London (Earthscan)

    Behrend, R. & Paczian, W. (1990) Raubmord am Regenwald. Vom Kampf gegen das Sterben der Erde. Reinbek (Rowohlt).

    Biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa and its islands (1990). Gland (IUCN)

    Blockhus, J. M. et al. (1992) Conserving biological diversity in managed tropical forests. Gland (IUCN)

    Bowles, I. A. et al(1998) Logging and tropical forest conservation. Science 280, 1899-1900.

    Brown, K. & Pearce, D. W. (1994) The causes of tropical deforestation. London (UCL Press)

    Cazzolla Gatti, R. et al. (2015) The impact of selective logging and clearcutting on forest structure, tree diversity and above-ground biomass of African tropical forests. Ecol. Res. 30, 119–132.

    Deforestation and the forest peoples of Central Africa. infoe-Studie 6. Mönchengladbach 1990.

    Effiom, E. O. et al. (2013) Bushmeat hunting changes regeneration of African rainforests. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280, 20130246.

    Gartlan, J. S. (1974) The African forests and problems of conservation. Symposia of the 5th Congress of the International Primatological Society, 509-528.

    Hamilton, A. C. (1984) Deforestation in Uganda. Nairobi (Oxford University Press).

    Harcourt, A. H & Pennington, H. (1986) Local attitudes to wildlife and conservation. Primate Eye 29 (Suppl.), 12-15.

    Harcourt, A. H. et al. (1986) Public attitudes to wildlife and conservation in the Third World. Oryx 20, 152-154.

    IUCN (1987) IUCN Directory of afrotropical protected areas. Gland (IUCN).

    IUCN (1992) Conservation atlas of tropical forests, Africa.

    Johns, A. D. & Skorupa, J. P. (1987) Responses of rain forest primates to habitat disturbance: a review. International Journal of Primatology 8, 157-191.

    Junker, J. et al. (2012) Recent decline in suitable environmental conditions for African great apes. Diversity and Distributions 18, 1077–1099.

    Mayaux, P. (2013) State and evolution of the African rainforests between 1990 and 2010. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 368, 20120300.

    Meggers, B. J. et al. (Hrsg.) (1973) Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: A comparative review. Washington (Smithsonian).

    Myers, N. (1987) Trends in the destruction of rain forests. S. 3-22 in: Marsh, C. W. & Mittermeier, R. A. (Hrsg.) Primate conservation in the tropical rain forest. New York (Alan R. Liss).

    Putz, F. E. et al. (2000) Why poor logging practices persist in the tropics. Conservation biology 14, 951-956.

    Rudel, T. K. (2013) The national determinants of deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 368, 20120405.

    Spinage, C. L. (1972) The ecology and problems of the Volcano National Park, Rwanda. Biological Conservation 4, 194-204.

    Tabor, G. M. et al. (1990) Deciding the future of Uganda's tropical forests. Oryx 24 (4), 208-214.

    Tutin, C. E. G. & Fernandez, M. (1987) Gabon: a fragile sanctuary. Primate Conservation 8, 160-161.

    Weber, W. et al. (Hrsg.) (2001) African rain forest ecology and conservation. New Haven, London (Yale University Press).

    Wilkie, D. et al. (2000) Roads, development, and conservation in the Congo Basin. Conservation Biology 14, 1614-1622.

  • Tourismus

    Ahebwa et al. (2012) Tourism revenue sharing policy at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: a policy arrangements approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 20 (3), 377-394.

    Boo, E. (1990) Ecotourism: The Potentials and Pitfalls, Vol. I. WWF, Washington D. C.

    Butler, R. W. (1991) Tourism, environment, and sustainable development. Environmental Conservation 18, 201-209.

    Butynski, T. M. & Kalina, J. (1998) Gorilla tourism: A critical look. In: Conservation of Biological Resources. E. J. Milner-Gulland & R. Mace (Hrsg.). Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, S. 280-300.

    Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1996) Tourism, Ecotourism and Protected Areas: The State of Nature-Based Tourism around the World and Guidelines for its Development. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

    Duffus, D. (1993) Tsitika to Baram: The myth of sustainability. Conservation Biology 7, 440-442.

    Ellenberg, L. et al. (1997) Ökotourismus: Reisen zwischen Ökonomie und Ökologie. Heidelberg (Spektrum).

    Evans, S. (2000) Ecotourism in tropical rainforests: an environmental management option for threatened resources? In: X. Font & J. Tribe (Hrsg.) Forest tourism and recreation: Case studies in environmental management. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CAB International.

    Klailova, M. et al. (2010) Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers. American Journal of Primatology 71, 1-10.

    Köndgen, S. et al. (2008) Pandemic human viruses cause decline of endangered great apes. Current Biology 18, 1-5.

    Kohnen, K.-H. & Braun, R. (1989) Cash apes - das Geschäft mit dem Gorilla-Tourismus. S. 159-169 in: Euler, C. (Hrsg.) "Eingeborene" - ausgebucht. Ökozid 5. Gießen (Focus).

    Kreib, Y. (1989) Umweltverträglicher Tourismus - mehr als nur ein Werbetrick. Gießen (Focus-Verlag).

    Laudati, A. (2010) Ecotourism: the modern predator? Implications of gorilla tourism on local livelihoods in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Environment and Planning D: Society & Space 28 (4), 726-743.

    Laudati, A. (2010): The encroaching forest: struggles overland and resources on the boundary of Bwindi Impentrable National Park, Uganda. Society and Natural Resources 23, 776-789. 

    Litchfield, C. (2001) Responsible tourism with great apes in Uganda. In: S. F. McCool & R. N. Moisey (Hrsg.), Tourism, Recreation and Sustainability. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CAB International.

    McNeilage A. (1996) Ecotourism and mountain gorillas in the Virunga volcanoes. In: Taylor, V. J. & Dunstone, N. (Hrsg.) The Exploitation of Mammal Populations, S. 334-344. London, Chapman & Hall.

    Moorhouse, T. P. (2015) The Customer Isn't Always Right — Conservation and Animal Welfare Implications of the Increasing Demand for Wildlife Tourism. PLoS ONE 10 (10), e0138939.

    Moulton, M. P. & Sanderson, J. (1996) Wildlife issues in a changing world. St Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida.

    Prescott-Allen, R. & Prescott-Allen, C. (1996) Assessing the sustainability of uses of wild species: Case studies and initial procedures. IUCN, Cambridge, UK.

    Robbins, M. M. et al. (2011) Extreme Conservation Leads to Recovery of the Virunga Mountain Gorillas. PLoS one 6 (6), e19788.

    Russon, A. & Wallis, J. (eds.; 2014) Primate Tourism: A Tool for Conservation? Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Rwego, I. B. et al. (2008) Gastrointestinal bacterial transmission among humans, mountain gorillas, and livestock in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Conservation Biology 22, 1600-1607.

    Sandbrook, C. (2010) Putting leaking in its place: the significance of retained tourism revenue in the local context in rural Uganda. Journal of International Development 22, 124-136.

    Sandbrook, C. & Semple, S. (2006) The rules and the reality of mountain gorilla Gorilla beringei beringei tracking: how close do tourists get? Oryx 40, 428-433.

    Stewart, K. J. (1992) Gorilla tourism: Problems of control. Gorilla Conservation News 6, 15-16.

    Stewart, K. J. (1993) Gorilla tourism: A reply to Zaire. Gorilla Conservation News 7, 12-13.

    Wall, G. (1997) Is ecotourism sustainable? Environmental Management 21, 483-491.

    Wallis, J. & Lee, D. R. (1999) Primate conservation: the prevention of disease transmission. International Journal of Primatology 20, 803-826.

    Walpole, M. J. & Thouless, C. R. (2005) Increasing the value of wildlife through non-consumptive use? Deconstructing the myths of ecotourism and community-based tourism in the tropics. S. 122-139 in: Woodroffe, R. et al. (Hrsg.) Prople and wildlife - conflict of coexistence? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Weber, W. (1993) Primate conservation and ecotourism in Africa. In: Perspectives on Biodiversity: Case Studies of Genetic Resource Conservation and Development (Hrsg. C. S. Potter et al.), S. 129-150. AAAS Press, Washington D. C.

    Wilkie D. S. & Carpenter J. F. (1999) Can nature tourism help finance protected areas in the Congo Basin? Oryx 33 (4), 332-338.

    Wilkie D. S. & Carpenter J. F. (1999) The potential role of safari hunting as a source of revenue for protected areas in the Congo Basin. Oryx 33 (4), 339-345.

    Woodford, M. H. et al. (2002) Habituating the great apes: the disease risk. Oryx 38, 153-160. Online-Version

  • Verhalten

    Bernstein, I. S. (1969) A comparison of the nesting patterns among the three great apes. S. 393-402 in: Bourne, G. H. (Hrsg.) The chimpanzee Vol. 1. Basel (Karger).

    Blom, A. et al. (2004) Behavioral responses of gorillas to habituation in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic. International Journal of Primatology 25, 179-196.

    Böer, M. & Janke-Grimm, G. (1990) Verhaltensuntersuchungen an Flachlandgorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) im Zoologischen Garten. Der Zoologische Garten 60, 137-189.

    Boekhorst, I. J. A. te et al. (1990) Social structure of a group of captive lowland gorillas. Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia 81, 17-30.

    Bradley, B. J. et al. (2004) Dispersed male networks in western gorillas. Current Biology 14, 510-513.

    Bradley, B. J. et al. (2005) Mountain gorilla tug-of-war: silverbacks have limited control over reproduction in multimale groups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 102, 9418-9423.

    Bradley, B. J. et al. (2007) Potential for female kin associations in wild western gorillas despite female dispersal. Proceedings of the Royal Society London Series B 274, 2179-2185.

    Breuer, T. (2007) Mbeli Bai - Forschung auf Waldlichtungen im tropischen Regenwald Afrikas. Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoo 50, 147-160.

    Breuer, T. et al. (2005) First observation of tool use in wild gorillas. PLoS Biology 3, 2041-2043 (online e380).

    Breuer, T. et al. (2016) Sexual coercion and courtship by male western gorillas. Primates 57, 29–38.

    Brown, S. G. (1988) Play behaviour in lowland gorillas: age differences, sex differences, and possible functions. Primates 29, 219-228.

    Brown, S. G. et al. (1982) Notes on water-contact by a captive male lowland gorilla. Zoo Biology 1, 243-249.

    Brown, S. G. & Wagster, M. V. (1986) Socialization processes in a female lowland gorilla. Zoo Biology 5, 269-279.

    Byrne, R. W. (1995) Primate cognition: comparing problems and skills. American Journal of Primatology 37, 127-141.

    Byrne, R. W. (1994) Complex skills in wild mountain gorillas: techniques for gathering plant food. S. 51-59 in: Current Primatology Vol. 3. Strasbourg.

    Byrne, R. W. & Byrne, J. M. E. (1993) Complex leaf-gathering skills of mountain gorillas: variability and standardization. American Journal of Primatology 31, 241-261.

    Byrne, R. W. et al. (2001) Estimating the complexity of animal behaviour: how mountain gorillas eat thistles. Behaviour 138, 525-557.

    Byrne, R. W. (2001) Clever hands: the food-processing skills of mountain gorillas. S. 293-313 in: Robbins, M. M. et al. (Hrsg.) Mountain Gorillas. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Caillaud, D. et al. (2008) Influence of male morphology on male mating status and behavior during interunit encounters in western lowland gorillas. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 135, 379–388.

    Carpenter, C. R. (1964) An observational study of two captive mountain gorillas. In: Carpenter, C. R. (Hrsg.) Naturalistic behaviour of nonhuman primates. University Park (Pennsylvania University Press).

    Doran, D. M. & McNeilage, A. (1998) Gorilla ecology and behavior. Evolutionary Anthropology, 6, 120-131.

    Doran, D. M. & McNeilage, A. (2001) Subspecific variation in gorilla behavior: the influence of ecological and social factors. S. 123-149 in: Robbins, M. M. et al. (Hrsg.) Mountain Gorillas. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Doran-Sheehy, D. M. et al. (2009) The strategic use of sex in wild female western gorillas. American Journal of Primatology 71, 1011-1020.

    Fagot, J. & Vauclair, J. (1988) Handedness and bimanual coordination in the lowland gorilla. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 32, 89-95.

    Fay, M. (1989) Hand-clapping in western lowland gorillas. Mammalia 53, 457-458.

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    Nadler, R. D. & Green, S. (1975) Separation and reunion of a gorilla infant and mother. International Zoo Yearbook 15, 198-201.

    Neubauer, S. & Heckner-Bisping, U. (1999) Soziale Interaktionen innerhalb einer Gruppe von männlichen Flachlandgorillas im Loro Parque Teneriffa. Der Zoologische Garten 69, 11-39.

    Neuwald, A. & Heckner-Bisping, U. (2000) Neue Wege in der Haltung von Flachlandgorillas im Loro Parque Teneriffa. Zoo. Garten 70, 376-402.

    Ogden, J. J. et al. (1989) Gorillas of Cameroon: A post-occupancy evaluation. AAZPA Reg. Conf. Proc. (1989), 557-563.

    Peel, A. J. et al. (2005) Non-invasive fecal hormone analysis and behavioral observations for monitoring stress responses in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Zoo Biology 24, 431-445.

    Pope C. E. et al. (1997) Birth of a western lowland gorilla following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. American Journal of Primatology 41(3): 247-260.

    Prince-Hughes, D. (2001) Gorillas among us. A primate ethnographer's book of days. Tucson (University of Arizona Press).

    Ross, S. R. et al. (2011) Space use selectivity by chimpanzees and gorillas in an indoor-outdoor enclosure. American Journal of Primatology 73, 197-208.

    Ruempler, U. (1990) Verhaltensänderungen von Flachlandgorillas im Zoologischen Garten Köln nach Futterumstellung. Z. Kölner Zoo 33, 75-84.

    Ryan, S. et al. (2002) Effects of hand-rearing on the reproductive success of western lowland gorillas in North America. Zoo Biology 21, 389-401.

    Sievert, J. et al. (1991) Reproductive intervals in captive female western lowland gorillas with a comparison to wild mountain gorillas. American Journal of Primatology 24, 227-234.

    Spengler, A. & Engel, H. (2012) Eine Gorillafamilie im Umbruch – unkonventionelle Familienintervention. Familiendynamik 37 (2), 2–11. 

    Stoinski, T. S. et al. (2001) A preliminary behavioral comparison of two captive all-male gorilla groups. Zoo Biology 20, 27-40.

    Stoinski, T. S. et al. (2001) Habitat use and structural preferences of captive western lowland gorillas: effects of environmental and social variables. International Journal of Primatology 22, 431-447.

    Stoinski, T. S. et al. (2002) Urinary androgen and corticoid levels in captive male western lowland gorillas: age- and social group-related differences. American Journal of Primatology 56, 73-87.

    Stoinski, T. S. et al. (2004) Factors influencing the formation and maintenance of all-male gorilla groups in captivity. Zoo Biology 23, 189-203.

    Thompson, V. D. (1984) Noncompliant behavior in zoo visitors. Zool. Garten 54, 177-190.

    Vermeer, J. et al. (2014) Progress in the Western lowland gorilla Gorilla gorilla gorilla European Endangered Species Programme: a review of the decade 2002-2011. International Zoo Yearbook 48 (1), 234-249.

    Vermeer, J. & Devreese, L. (2015) Birth sex ratio, infant mortality and rearing type in captive western lowland gorillas. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 3 (1), 6-10.

    Vrancken, A. et al. (1990) Preliminary study on the influence of the visiting public on the spatial distribution in captive eastern lowland gorillas. Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia 81, 9-15.

    Weghorst, J. A. & McGrew, W. C. (2000) Up where they belong? Habitat and activity budgets in two captive groups of western lowland gorillas. Zool. Garten 70, 273-284.

    Wells, D. L. (2005) A note on the influence of visitors on the behaviour and welfare of zoo-housed gorillas. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 93, 13-17.

    White, M. (1999) An overview of the St. Louis bachelor group(s). Gorilla Gazette13(1), 34-36.

    Wilson, S. F. (1982) Environmental influences on the activity of captive apes. Zoo Biology 1, 201-209.

Schutzgebiete

  • Bwindi

    Ahebwa et al. (2012) Tourism revenue sharing policy at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: a policy arrangements approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 20 (3), 377-394.

    Ashford R. W. et al. (1996) Patterns of intestinal parasitism in the mountain gorilla Gorilla gorilla in the Bwindi-Impenetrable Forest, Uganda. Journal of Zoology 239 (3), 507-514.

    Baker, J. et al. (2011) Park gazettement and integrated conservation and development as factors in community conflict at Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda. Conservation Biology 26, 160-170.

    Butynski, T. M. (1985) Primates and their conservation in the Impenetrable (Bwindi) Forest, Uganda. Primate Conservation 6, 15-16.

    Butynski, T. M. & Kalina, J. (1990) Taxonomic status of gorillas in the Impenetrable (Bwindi) Forest, Uganda. American Zoologist 30 (4), 73A.

    Butynski, T. M. & Kalina, J. (1993) Three new mountain national parks for Uganda. Oryx 27, 214-224.

    Elgart, A. A. (2010) Are the gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park "true" mountain gorillas? American Journal of Physical Anthropology 141, 561-570.

    Ganas, J. & Robbins, M. M. (2005) Ranging behavior of the mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: a test of the ecological constraints model. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 58, 277-288.

    Ganas, J. et al. (2004) Dietary variability of mountain gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology 25, 1043-1072.

    Goldsmith, M. L. (2003) Comparative behavioral ecology of a lowland and highland gorilla population: where do Bwindi gorillas fit? S. 358-384 in: Taylor, A. B. & Goldsmith, M. L. (Hrsg.) Gorilla biology. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Guschanski, K. et al. (2009) Counting elusive animals: Comparing field and genetic census of the entire mountain gorilla population of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Biological Conservation 142, 290-300.

    Hamilton, A. et al. (2000) Conservation in a region of political instability: Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda. Conservation Biology 14, 1722-1725.

    Harcourt, A. H. (1981) Can Uganda's gorillas survive? A survey of the Bwindi Forest Reserve. Biological Conservation 19, 269-282.

    Hedwig, D. et al. (2015) Audience Effects, but not Environmental Influences, Explain Variation in Gorilla Close Distance Vocalizations - A Test of the Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis. American Journal of Primatology 77, 1239-1252.

    Seiler, N. & Robbins, M. M. (2015) Factors Influencing Ranging on Community Land and Crop Raiding by Mountain Gorillas. Animal Conservation.

    Kalema-Zikusoka, G. et al. (2005) Intestinal parasites and bacteria of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Primates 46, 59-63.

    Laudati, A. (2010) Ecotourism: the modern predator? Implications of gorilla tourism on local livelihoods in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Environment and Planning D: Society & Space 28 (4), 726-743.

    Laudati, A. (2010) The encroaching forest: struggles overland and resources on the boundary of Bwindi Impentrable National Park, Uganda. Society and Natural Resources 23, 776-789.

    McNeilage, A. et al. (2001) Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: gorilla census 1997. Oryx 35, 39-47.

    McNeilage, A. et al. (2006) Census of the mountain gorilla Gorilla beringei beringei population in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Oryx 40, 419-427.

    Mudakikwa, A. (2001) An outbreak of mange hits the Bwindi gorillas. Gorilla Journal 22, 24.

    Nkurunungi, J. B. et al. (2004) A comparison of two mountain gorilla habitats in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 42, 289-297.

    Pitman, C. R. S. (1935) The gorillas of the Kayonsa region, western Kigezi, S. W. Uganda. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1935, 477-494.

    Robbins, M. M. (2008) Feeding competition and agonistic relationships among Bwindi Gorilla beringei. International Journal of Primatology 29, 999-1018.

    Robbins, M. M. & McNeilage, A. (2003) Home range and frugivory patterns of mountain gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology 24, 467-491.

    Robbins, M. M. & Sawyer, S. C. (2007) Intergroup encounters in mountain gorillas of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Behaviour 144, 1497-1519.

    Robbins, M. M. et al. (2009) Population dynamics of the Bwindi mountain gorillas. Biological Conservation 142, 2886-2895.

    Rothman, J. M. et al. (2006) Decaying wood is a sodium source for mountain gorillas. Biology letters 2, 321-324.

    Rothman, J. M. et al. (2006) Plant choice in the construction of night nests by gorillas in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology 68, 361-368.

    Rwego, I. B. et al. (2008) Gastrointestinal bacterial transmission among humans, mountain gorillas, and livestock in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Conservation Biology 22, 1600-1607.

    Sandbrook, C. (2010) Putting leaking in its place: the significance of retained tourism revenue in the local context in rural Uganda. Journal of International Development 22, 124-136.

    Sandbrook, C. & Semple, S. (2006) The rules and the reality of mountain gorilla Gorilla beringei beringei tracking: how close do tourists get? Oryx 40, 428-433.

    Sarmiento, E. E. et al. (1996) Gorillas of Bwindi-Impenetrable Forest and the Virunga Volcanoes: Taxonomic implications of morphological and ecological differences. American Journal of Primatology 40, 1-21.

    Stanford, C. B. & Nkurunungi, J. B. (2003) Behavioral ecology of sympatric chimpanzees and gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: diet. International Journal of Primatology 24, 901-918.

    Wright, E. & Robbins, M. M. (2014) Proximate mechanisms of contest competition among female Bwindi mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 68 (11), 1785-1797.

    Wright, E. et al. (2014) Dominance rank differences in the energy intake and expenditure of female Bwindi mountain gorillas. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 68 (6), 957-970.

  • Cross-River-Region

    Anadu, P. A. (1987) Prospects for conservation of forest primates in Nigeria. Primate Conservation 8, 154-159.

    Bergl, R. A. & Vigilant, L. (2007) Genetic analysis reveals population structure and recent migration within the highly fragmented range of the Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli). Molecular Ecology 16, 501-516.

    Bergl, R. A. et al. (2008) Effects of habitat fragmentation, population size and gemographic history on genetic diversity: the Cross River gorilla in a comparative context. American Journal of Primatology 70, 848-859.

    Bergl, R. A. et al. (2012) Remote sensing analysis reveals habitat, dispersal corridors and expanded distribution for the Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla Gorilla gorilla diehli. Oryx 46, 278-289.

    Effiom, E. O. et al. (2013) Bushmeat hunting changes regeneration of African rainforests. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280, 20130246.

    Eniang, Edem A. (2001) The role of the Cross River National Park in gorilla conservation. Gorilla Journal 22, 25-26.

    Etiendem, D. N. et al. (2013) The Cross River Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla diehli) at Mawambi Hills, South-West Cameroon: Habitat Suitability and Vulnerability to Anthropogenic Disturbance. Folia Primatologica 84, 18–31.

    Groves, J. L. (1999) Gorillas in the Takamanda Forest Reserve. Gorilla Journal 18, 17-18.

    Groves, J. (2001) Gorillas of Takamanda, Mone and Mbulu Forest, Cameroon. Gorilla Journal 22, 27-29.

    Harcourt, A. H. et al. (1989) Nigeria's Gorillas. Primate Conservation 10.

    Harcourt, A. H. et al. (1989) Gorilla quest in Nigeria. Oryx 23.

    Harcourt, A. H. et al. (1988) Conservation status of gorillas in Nigeria. Primate Eye 35, 26-27.

    Harris, D. et al. (1987) Report of gorillas from Nigeria. Primate Conservation 8, 40.

    Imong, I. S. et al. (2014) Distinguishing ecological constraints from human activity in species range fragmentation: The case of Cross River gorillas. Animal Conservation 17 (4), 323-331.

    Imong, I. S. et al. (2014) Informing conservation management about structural versus functional connectivity: A case-study of Cross River gorillas. American Journal of Primatology 76 (10), 978-988.

    Kotch, N. (1988) The gorillas of eastern Nigeria. Swara (East African Wildlife Society) 11(3), 25-27.

    March, E. W. (1957) Gorillas of Eastern Nigeria. Oryx 4, 30-34.

    Moffat & Linden (1995) Perception and reality: assessing priorities for sustainable development in the Niger river delta. Ambio 24.

    Nicholas, A. et al. (2010) Successes in Community-Based Monitoring of Cross River Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla diehli) in Cameroon. African Primates 7 (1), 55-60.

    Nkemnyi, M. F. et al. (2013) Making hard choices: balancing indigenous communities livelihood and Cross River gorilla conservation in the Lebialem–Mone Forest landscape, Cameroon. Environment, Development and Sustainability, online November 2012.

    Oates J. F. (1991) New plans for the conservation of Nigerian gorillas. Gorilla Conserv. News 5, 13-15

    Oates, J. F. et al. (2003) The Cross River gorilla: natural history and status of a neglected and critically endangered subspecies. S. 472-497 in: Taylor, A. B. & Goldsmith, M. L. (Hrsg.) Gorilla biology. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Oates, J. F. et al. (2004) Africa's Gulf of Guinea forests: biodiversity patterns and conservation priorities. Advances in Applied Biodiversity Science 6. Washington, DC (Conservation International).

    Sarmiento, E. E. & Oates, J. F. (1999) Eigene Gorilla-Unterart in Nigeria? Cross River gorillas - a neglected subspecies. Gorilla Journal 19.

    Sarmiento, E. E. & Oates, J. F. (2000) The Cross River Gorillas: A Distinct Subspecies, Gorilla gorilla diehli Matschie 1904. American Museum Novitates 3304.

    Sunderland-Groves, J. L. et al. (2003) Surveys of the Cross River gorilla and chimpanzee populations in Takamanda Forest Reserve, Cameroon. S. 129-140 in: Comiskey, J. A. et al. (Hrsg.) Takamanda: the biodiversity of an African rainforest. SI/MAB Series 8. Washington, D. C. (Smithsonian Institution).

    Wright, J. H. & Priston, N. E. C. (2010) Hunting and trapping in Lebialem Division, Cameroon: bushmeat harvesting practices and human reliance. Endangered Species Research (1), 1-12.

  • Itombwe

    Butynski, T. M. et al. (1996) Vorläufiger Bericht über eine Studie im südlichen Itombwe-Massiv, Ostzaire. Gorilla-Journal 13.

    Collar, N. J. & Stuart, S. N. (1988) Key forests for threatened birds in Africa. IGBP Monograph 3.

    Doumenge, C. (1998) Forest diversity, distribution, and dynamique in the Itombwe mountain, South-Kivu, Congo Democratic Republic. Mountain Research and Development 18, 249-264.

    Laurent, R. F. (1964) Adaptive modifications in frogs in an isolated highland fauna in Central Africa. Evolution 18, 458-467.

    Omari, I. et al. (1999) The Itombwe Massif, Democratic Republic of Congo: biological surveys and conservation, with an emphasis on Grauer's gorilla and birds endemic to the Albertine Rift. Oryx 33, 301-322.

    Plumptre, A. J. et al. (2016) Catastrophic Decline of World's Largest Primate: 80% Loss of Grauer's Gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) Population Justifies Critically Endangered Status. PLoS ONE 11 (10): e0162697.

    Prigogine, A. (1978) Les oiseaux de l'Itombwe et de son hinterland, Vol. 2. Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Serie 6, Sciences Zoologiques, No. 228.

    Wilson, J. R. & Catsis, M. C. (1990) A preliminary survey of the forests of the "Itombwe" Mountains and the Kahuzi-Biega National Park Extension, East Zaire, July-September 1989. WWF/IZCN/FFPS.

  • Kahuzi-Biega

    Casimir, M. J. (1975) Feeding ecology and nutrition of an eastern gorilla group in the Mt. Kahuzi region (République de Zaire). Folia Primatologica 24, 81-136.

    Casimir, M. J. (1975) Some data on the systematic position of the eastern gorilla population of the Mt. Kahuzi region (Rep. of Zaire). Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie 66, 188-201.

    Casimir, M. J. (1979) An analysis of gorilla nesting sites of the Mt. Kahuzi region (Zaire). Folia Primatologica 32, 290-308.

    Casimir, M. J. & Butenandt, E. (1973) Migration and core area shifting in relation to some ecological factors in a mountain gorilla group in the Mt. Kahuzi region. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 33, 514-522.

    Eilenberger, U. (1997) Individual group specific and ecological influence factors on the status of endoparasites of wild eastern lowland gorillas in Zaire. Primate Report 47: 89-93.

    Eilenberger, U. (1997) Parasiten bei Gorillas und Menschen im selben Lebensraum. Endoparasites in gorillas and humans in the same habitat. Gorilla-Journal 15.

    Fischer, E. (1996) Die Vegetation des Parc National de Kahuzi-Biega, Sud-Kivu, Zaire. Stuttgart (Franz Steiner Verlag).

    Goodall, A. G. (1977) Feeding and ranging behaviour of a mountain gorilla group in the Tshibinda-Kahuzi region (Zaire) S. 449-479 in: Clutton-Brock, T. H. (Hrsg.) Primate ecology. London (Academic Press).

    Inogwabini, B.-I. et al. (2000) Status of large mammals in the mountain sector of Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, in 1996. African Journal of Ecology 38, 269-276.

    Kasereka, B. et al. (2006) Vulnerability of habituated Grauer's gorilla to poaching in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park, DRC. African Study Monographs 27 (1), 15-26.

    Plumptre, A. J. et al. (2016) Catastrophic Decline of World's Largest Primate: 80% Loss of Grauer's Gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) Population Justifies Critically Endangered Status. PLoS ONE 11 (10): e0162697.

    Murnyak, D. F. (1981) Censusing the gorillas in Kahuzi-Biega National Park. Biological Conservation 21,163-176.

    Schuler, C. (2013) Leben und Überleben im Kongo. Gorillaschutz und Familienleben im Krieg. Altdorf (BfT Verlag).

    Wina, E. (1989) Observations on the nesting of eastern lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla graueri at the Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Zaire. Interspecies relationships of primates in the tropical and montane forests 1, 97-101.

    Yamagiwa, J. (1983) Diachronic changes in two eastern lowland gorilla groups in the Mt. Kahuzi region, Zaire. Primates 24, 174-183.

    Yamagiwa, J. (1997) Mushamukas Geschichte: die größte und dauerhafteste Gruppe. Mushamuka's story: the largest group and the longest tenure. Gorilla-Journal 15.

    Yamagiwa, J. (2001) Factors influencing the formation of ground nests by eastern lowland gorillas in Kahuzi-Biega National Park: some evolutionary implications of nesting behavior. Journal of Human Evolution 40, 99-109.

    Yamagiwa, J. (2003) Bushmeat poaching and the conservation crisis in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. S. 115-135 in: Price, S. V. (Hrsg.) War and tropical forests. New York (Food Products Press).

    Yamagiwa, J. & Basabose, A. K. (2006) Diet and seasonal changes in sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees at Kahuzi-Biega National Park.
    Primates 47, 74-90.

    Yamagiwa, J. & Kahekwa, J. (2009) Infanticide and social flexibility in the genus Gorilla. Primates 50, 293-303.

    Yamagiwa, J. & Mwanza, N. (1994) Day-journey length and daily diet of solitary male gorillas in lowland and highland habitats. International Journal of Primatology 15, 207-224.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (1989) A preliminary study on sympatric populations of Gorilla g. graueri and Pan t. schweinfurthii in eastern Zaire. Interspecies relationships of primates in the tropical and montane forests 1, 23-40.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (1991) Ant eating by eastern lowland gorillas. Primates 32, 247-253.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (1992) Travel distances and food habits of eastern lowland gorillas: A comparative analysis. In: Itoigawa, M. et al. (Hrsg.) Topics in Primatology Vol. 2: Behavior, ecology and conservation. Univ. of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, S. 267-281.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (1993) A census of the eastern lowland gorillas in Kahuzi-Biega National Park with reference to mountain gorillas in the Virunga region. Biological Conservation 64, 83-89.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (1994) Seasonal change in the composition of the diet of eastern lowland gorillas. Primates 35, 1-14.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (1996) Dietary and ranging overlap in sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Zaire. S. 82-98 in: McGrew, W. et al. (Hrsg.) Great ape societies. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (2003) Within-group feeding competition and socioecological factors influencing social organization of gorillas in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. S. 328-357 in: Taylor, A. B. & Goldsmith, M. L. (Hrsg.) Gorilla biology. Cambridge (Cambridge University Press).

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (2005) Diet of Grauer's gorillas in the Montane Forest of Kahuzi, Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology 26, 1345-1373.

    Yamagiwa, J. et al. (2012) Long-term research on Grauer’s gorillas in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, DRC: life history, foraging strategies, and ecological differentiation from sympatric chimpanzees. Pp 385–412 in: Kappeler, P. M. & Watts, D. P. (eds.) Long-term field studies of primates. Berlin, Heidelberg (Springer).

    Yumoto, T. et al. (1989) Feeding habit of primates in the tropical forests of eastern Zaire. Interspecies relationships of primates in the tropical and montane forests 1, 41-51.

  • Mt. Tshiaberimu

    Katembo Mushengezi, V. (1998) Progress report on Mt. Tshiaberimu conservation activities. Gorilla Journal 17.

    Sarmiento, E. E. & Butynski, T. M. (1998) Preliminary report on the survey of Mt. Tshiaberimu, Democratic Republic of Congo. Gorilla Conservation News 12, 10.12.

  • Virunga-Vulkane

    Aveling, C. & Aveling, R. (1989) Gorilla conservation in Zaire. Oryx 23 (2), 64-70.

    Aveling, C. & Harcourt, A. H. (1984) A census of the Virunga gorillas. Oryx 18 (1), 8-13.

    Aveling, R. & Aveling, C. (1987) Report from the Zaire gorilla conservation project. Primate Conservation 8, 162-164.

    Baumgärtel, W. (1958) The Muhavura gorillas. Primates 1, 79-83.

    Baumgärtel, W. (1959) The last British gorillas. Geographical Magazine, London, 32, 32-41.

    Baumgärtel, W. (1976) Up among the mountain gorillas. New York (Hawthorn Books).

    Beringe, R. von (1903) Bericht des Hauptmanns von Beringe über seine Expedition nach Ruanda. Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 234-235, 264-266, 296-298, 317-319.

    Bradley, B. J. et al. (2005) Mountain gorilla tug-of-war: silverbacks have limited control over reproduction in multimale groups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 102 (26), 9418-9423.

    Butynski, T. (1991) Status, distribution and conservation of the mountain gorilla in the gorilla game reserve, Uganda. Gorilla Conservation News 5, 26-27.

    Byers, A. C. & Hastings, B. (1991) Mountain gorilla mortality and climatic factors in the Parc National des Volcans, Ruhengeri Prefecture, Rwanda, 1988. Mountain research and development 11 (2), 145-151.

    Byrne, R. W. & Byrne, J. M. E. (1993) Complex leaf-gathering skills of mountain gorillas: variability and standardization. American Journal of Primatology 31, 241-261.

    Byrne, R. W. et al. (2001) Estimating the complexity of animal behaviour: how mountain gorillas eat thistles. Behaviour 138, 525-557.

    Caillaud, D. et al. (2014) Mountain Gorilla Ranging Patterns: Influence of Group Size and Group Dynamics. American Journal of Primatology 76 (8), 730-746.

    Caro, T. M. (1976) Observations on the ranging behaviour and daily activity of lone silverback mountain gorillas. Anim. Behav. 24, 889-897.

    Czekala, N. & Sicotte, P. (2000) Reproductive monitoring of free-ranging female mountain gorillas by urinary hormone analysis. American Journal of Primatology 51, 209-215.

    Donisthorpe, J. (1958) A pilot study of the mountain gorilla. South African Journal of Science 54, 195-217.

    Eckardt, W. et al. (2016) Weaned age variation in the Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei): influential factors. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 70, 493-507.

    Emlen, J. T. & Schaller, G. B. (1960) Distribution and status of the mountain gorilla, 1959. Zoologica New York 45, 41-52.

    Fossey, D. (1970) Making friends with mountain gorillas. National Geographical Magazine 137, 48-67.

    Fossey, D. (1971) More years with mountain gorillas. National Geographic Magazine 140, 574-585.

    Fossey, D. (1972) Vocalisations of the mountain gorilla. Animal Behaviour 20, 36-53.

    Fossey, D. (1974) Observations on the home range of one group of mountain gorillas. Animal behaviour 22, 568-581.

    Fossey, D. (1979) Development of the mountain gorilla: The first thirty-six months. In: The great apes, D. A. Hamburg & E. McCown (Hrsg.), Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, S. 139-184.

    Fossey, D. (1982) Reproduction among free-living mountain gorillas. American Journal of Primatology, Suppl. 1, 97-104.

    Fossey, D. (1984) Infanticide in mountain gorillas with comparative notes on chimpanzees. S. 217-235 in: Hausfater, G. & Hrdy, S. B. (Hrsg.) Infanticide. New York (Aldine).

    Fossey, D. & Harcourt, A. H. (1977) Feeding ecology of free-ranging mountain gorillas. S. 415-447 in: Clutton-Brock, T. H. (Hrsg.) Primate ecology. London (Academic Press).

    Ganas, J. et al. (2008) Food preferences of wild mountain gorillas. American Journal of Primatology 70, 927-938.

    Gray, M. et al. (2010) Censusing the mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes: complete sweep method versus monitoring. African Journal of Ecology 48 (3), 588-599.

    Gray, M. et al. (2013) Genetic census reveals increased but uneven growth of a critically endangered mountain gorilla population. Biological Conservation 158, 230-238.

    Grueter, C. C. & Stoinski, T. S. (2016) Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal? PLoS ONE 11 (5), e0154185.

    Grueter, C. C. et al. (2013) Long-Term Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Food Availability for Endangered Mountain Gorillas in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. American Journal of Primatology 75, 267–280.

    Habumuremyi, S. et al. (2016) Endocrine assessment of ovarian cycle activity in wild female mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Physiology & Behavior 157, 185–195.

    Harcourt, A. H. (1977) Virunga gorillas - the case against translocations. Oryx 13, 469-472.

    Harcourt, A. H. (1978) Activity periods and patterns of social interaction: a neglected problem. Behaviour 66, 121-135.

    Harcourt, A. H. (1978) Strategies of emigration and transfer by primates, with particular reference to gorillas. Z. Tierpsych. 48, 401-420.

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  • Über Gorillas ist ungeheuer viel veröffentlicht worden; hier eine Auswahl wichtiger Bücher. (© Angela Meder)
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